Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine http://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM <p style="text-align: justify;">The Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences &amp; Forensic Medicine (AJFSFM) is an open access (CC BY-NC), peer-reviewed, and free of charge journal dedicated to the development and application of forensic science and forensic medical knowledge and research for the purpose of law and justice across the globe. The AJFSFM is an official publication (ISSN 1658-6786) of the Arab Society for Forensic Sciences and Forensic Medicine (ASFSFM) and is published biannually by Naif Arab University for Security Sciences (NAUSS), Riyadh – Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.</p> Naif Arab University for Security Sciences en-US Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine 1658-6786 <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;You must read and accept the copyright terms and conditions(<a href="https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/Copyrights" target="_blank" rel="noopener">click here for&nbsp;copyright terms</a>).</p> Forensic Discrimination of Petroleum Products Using Attenuated Total Reflectance–Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) Spectrophotometry and Chemometrics http://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1338 <p>Petroleum products are commonly used as fuel in world. These substances are frequently encountered, as evidence, in forensic investigations of arson and illegal adulteration. In such cases, therefore, it becomes important to ascertain the brand and quality of a given sample/s. These investigations also warrant discrimination between petroleum products of different brands to identify manufacturers and sources. In such cases, Attenuated total reflectance–Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectrophotometry has proved to be a useful technique over other conventional methods such as GC-FID or GC-MS due to its simplicity, rapid, cost-effective and non-destructive nature. In the present work, an attempt has been made to classify neat samples of diesel and petrol-based on their brands and quality using ATR-FTIR spectrophotometry and chemometric techniques such as Principal component analysis (PCA) and Linear discriminant analysis (LDA). 82 samples of diesel and 78 samples of petrol of 3 different brands (Bharat petroleum, Hindustan petroleum, Indian oil) and of 2 different qualities (normal and premium) were collected from different cities of Punjab state of Northern India. PCA showed significant classification for diesel samples, however, significant classification was not observed for petrol samples. LDA correctly classified 97.22% and 74.4% of diesel and petrol samples based on their brands. However, the accuracy of the classification of petrol samples based on quality was only 64.1%. It is evident that ATR-FTIR is a non-destructive, rapid, cost-effective, simple to use, efficient, and accurate technique that can be used effectively in combination with chemometric tools for the differentiation of petroleum products.</p> Gurvinder Singh Bumbrah Sandeep Brar Praveen Kumar Yadav Rakesh Mohan Sharma Copyright (c) 2 1 المملكة العربية السعودية الرياض http://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1332 <p>.</p> محمد المصعبي Copyright (c) 2 1 المملكة العربية السعودية الرياض http://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1331 <p>تسجيل في داراسة العوم الاءدلة الجنائية والطب الشرعي&nbsp;</p> محمد المصعبي Copyright (c) 2 1 Pregabalin toxicity and its correlation with the blood concentration: Experimental study http://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1188 <p>Increasing evidence demonstrates that Pregabalin (PRG) affects body tissues other than neuronal tissue. Its overdose toxic effects were evaluated in rats. PRG was given orally in doses 4g and 2.5g/kg for one day and in doses 50mg and 20mg/Kg for 21 days. There was no significant difference (P &gt; 0.05) between the PRG intoxicated groups compared to the control group in the assessed hematological parameters, serum albumin, blood urea nitrogen, and creatinine. PRG toxicity altered body organ indices, particularly at high doses, while sustained PRG toxicity lessened considerably the bodyweight of rats. Serum aspartate aminotransferase, white blood cell count, and platelet count were the most dramatically affected laboratory parameters (P &lt; 0.05), particularly with a PRG dose of 50 mg/kg. The increase in oral dose was followed by a rise in the concentration of PRG in blood. Histopathological analysis indicated mild to moderate hepatic congestion with cellular infiltration and renal tubular necrosis with concurrent administration of multiple toxic PRG doses. Consumption of high doses of Pregabalin over a long period can experience hepatorenal toxicity with clinical consequences.</p> Samah Ibrahim Copyright (c) 2 1 Comparative morphological and radiological study of dental implants for human identification http://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1324 <p>Dental evidence has been commonly used for forensic identification because of its low cost and uniqueness to individual. Dental implants being resistant to mechanical and thermal insult can aid in identification process. The study was undertaken to determine the class and individual characteristics of dental implants morphologically and radiographically. The study showed that dental implants could be classified morphologically and radiographically by form of company type. Dental implants are used as an important aid in the forensic identification due to their ability to survive higher temperatures even after incineration.</p> Abraham Johnson Copyright (c) 2 1 Macroscopic cranial suture closure in an adult population: is it reliable for estimating age? http://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1318 <p><strong>Background</strong>:-</p> <p>Age estimation is one of the important parameters for estimation of biological profile of an individual. Generally speaking, estimation of age of an individual whether living or dead is very important in Medicolegal and forensic scenario. The objective of the present study was to observe the chronology and pattern of union of cranial sutures namely coronal and lambdoid and to find out the relationship between closure of cranial suture and age of the deceased. An attempt was also made to see the applicability of Acsadi and Nemeskeri method in an Indian population. A total of 193 adult calvaria (133 males and 60 females) were studied from the autopsy cases. The extent of obliteration was studied ectocranially and endocranially in the two main sutures of the calvarium i.e. coronal and lambdoid.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>:-</p> <p>The results indicate that a strong positive correlation of ectocranial with endocranial suture closure is found in the age group of 30-39 years for right coronal, left coronal, while age group of 60-69 years shows a strong positive correlation for lambdoid sutures. This has also been confirmed in the study that the cranial suture obliteration starts endocranially and proceeds towards ectocranial surface. Statistically insignificant sex differences exist in suture closure.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>:-</p> <p>The coronal and lambdoid sutures were closed in the age group of above 70 years with mean values of 3.54 for coronal and 3.7 for lambdoid suture. Acsadi and Nemeskeri’s method was found to be applicable to the Indian population for determination of age from cranial sutures.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Nilesh Keshav Tumram Soniya Parchake Arun Kasote Meena Meshram Copyright (c) 2 1 Dental age estimation using Demirjian and Chaillet-Demirjian method: A Comparative Study http://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1312 <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Forensic odontology is the proper handling, examination, and evaluation of dental evidence, which will be presented in the interest of justice. Dental age estimation is one of the essential tool in identifying the human remains in various criminal cases and very mutilated victims of a mass disaster.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The aim of the present study was to compare and test the chronological age and estimated dental age difference using Demirjian and Chaillet-Demirjian method in the Maharashtra Population. A total&nbsp; 96 orthopantomogram radiographs aged between 6-18 of Maharashtra population were evaluated using Demirjian and Chaillet-Demirjian methods. Statistical analysis was performed using RStudio software.</span> <span style="font-weight: 400;">The mean difference between chronological age and estimated dental age was ranged from -0.73-1.3 years for males and -0.9-1 year for females in Demirjian method, whereas from - 0.57-2.13 years for males and -1.25-0.49 years for females in Chaillet-Demirjian method. Both the methods show a strong positive correlation between chronological age and estimated dental age. A one way ANOVA test shows</span> <span style="font-weight: 400;">statistically significance differences for estimated dental age by both Demirjian (F = 40.63, p &lt; 0.05) and Chaillet-Demirjian method (F=7.29, p&lt; 0.05).&nbsp;</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Study revealed that the Demirjian method found to be more suitable than the Chaillet-Demirjian method in the Maharashtra population.</span></p> Archana Mahakalkar Lina Bhoyar Rashmi Kulkarni Ashita Kalaskar Dhiraj Naik Copyright (c) 2 1 DEVELOPMENTS IN THE FIRE DEBRIS ANALYSIS BY GC-MS http://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1309 <p>Arson is a very serious crime that affects not only the society through cost, property damage but human and animal lives therefore it is important that the methods and technologies applied by fire investigators for the fire debris analysis should have a high degree of reliability, sensitivity, as well as be subject to rigorous quality control and assurance. Previously Gas chromatography was traditionally used to analyse the fire debris to detect the inflammable oil residues but conventional gas chromatographic analysis of highly contaminated fire debris samples often gives ambiguous results with respect to the presence or otherwise of an accelerant basically due to interfering compounds produced by the pyrolysis of the matrix material itself. GC-MS largely overcomes this problem of background interference. <strong><a href="https://www.omicsonline.org/open-access/development-and-validation-of-a-gcms-with-sim-method-for-the-determination-of-trace-levels-of-methane-sulfonyl-chloride-as-an-impu-2155-9872-1000316.php?aid=73098">GC-MS</a></strong>&nbsp;is highly efficacious and multifaceted techniques with different scientific applications to fascinate the forensic investigations.</p> Poonam Yadav Copyright (c) 2 1 “ A NEW POWDER METHOD FOR DEVELOPMENT OF LATENT FINGERPRINT ” http://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1310 <p><strong>Abstract:- </strong></p> <p>Different powder methods have been accounted for the development of latent fingerprints on various surfaces in the literature, such as lead, titanium oxide, Rhodamine B dye etc., all powders mentioned had been used for the development of latent fingerprints. &nbsp;Some of these methods using powders when exposed to humans, may lead to health problems, and also these methods are expensive in nature. Current study is proposing a new powder method, which is simple, nontoxic to human health, cheap in nature, and as well can be utilized for the development of latent fingerprints on various contrast surfaces.</p> <p>This method is simple and easily preparable, it's characterized by being in powder form, and also available in different colors, so it can be used for the development of latent fingerprints at the crime scene.&nbsp; In this study we used different soil colors for the development of latent fingerprints on various contrast surfaces such as plastic, aluminum surface, motor bike painted area, car bonnet, CPU, hanke, glass, table (sunmica-glossy), cotton, skin, CD and transparency. we successfully developed latent fingerprints on all the surfaces except skin and cotton by using this method. Soil is adsorbed well on latent fingerprint residues and shows clear latent fingerprint ridges; In the future it can be utilized at crime scene for the development of latent fingerprints.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Dinesh Dinesh Copyright (c) 2 1 PATTERN OF FILLING UP OF MEDICAL CERTIFICATE OF CAUSE OF DEATH (MCCD) AT A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL DURING COVID PANDEMIC: A MATTER OF CONCERN” http://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1304 <p>Medical Certification of Cause of Death- MCCD, plays an important role in deciding the direction of public health programs, provide a feedback system for future implementation of health policies, health planning and management of epidemiological studies, medico-legal investigations, census studies, assessment of effectiveness of public health programs. As &nbsp;Covid- 19 produces so much confusion into the mind of treating doctor as how to give cause of death in MCCD. Certification and coding of death related to Covid-19 is essential for smooth contact tracing afterwards.&nbsp; Our study focused on the analysis of MCCD proformas filled up by residents and doctors and common mistakes committed while filling it while treating the Covid patient at wards. This is a retrospective, cross sectional study carried out at Covid-19 dedicated hospital associated with a Medical College situated in Rajasthan. The period of this study is three month of early Covid-19 pandemic time from 1<sup>st</sup> April 2020 to 30<sup>th</sup> June 2020, in which a total of 199 deaths were reported. We could study a total of 152 certificates (76.38. %) out of total 199 deaths as in rest of cases, the MCCD was not attached as deceased was brought dead to hospital. The analytical result of study revealed some major errors like immediate cause of death was Covid-19 positive with cardiovascular arrest. The conclusion of our study highlights an urgent need for imparting extra efforts towards awareness, importance to undergraduates and postgraduate training. Also emphasis training of senior and junior faculty with other treating doctors.</p> Dr sachin meena Copyright (c) 2 1 “Detection of 11-Nor-9-carboxy-Δ⁹-Tetrahydrocannabinol Metabolite in the Pubic Hair of Drug Abuser by Target Ion GC-MS Method” http://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1299 <p><strong>Abstract-: </strong></p> <p>Cannabis substance abuse are widely addicted across the world. In drug of abuse cases hair play an important role to identify drug of abuse and consumption drugs history. However, scalp hair may not available in every case of drug abuse so that other body hairs play an important role in forensic toxicological analysis. In this study attempt has been made to use pubic hair as an alternative specimen for detection of 11-Nor-9-carboxy-Δ⁹-Tetrahydrocannabinol metabolite of cannabis abuser using target ion GC-MS method.</p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em></p> Dinesh Dinesh Copyright (c) 2 1 Forensic DNA examination in the pandemic era of COVID 19: An Indian Perspective http://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1298 <p>The extremely high nature of transmissibility and severity of infection due to the novel Corona virus is a serious threat to mankind. The letter reports a caution for forensic DNA experts in the era of COVID infection from the Indian perspective. Cases are routinely transported without any specific guidelines to the laboratories. The forensic DNA testing laboratories are mostly facing financial constraints on one hand and on another hand, most of the laboratories are facing huge pendency of cases. Therefore, this is high time to formulate a clear guideline for the handling of biological material from receiving to processing in the laboratory is such a pandemic situation.</p> Pankaj Shrivastava R.K> Kumawat Copyright (c) 2 1 سشسشس http://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1118 <p>سيسي</p> muaz elshikh Copyright (c) 2 1 Forensic analysis of wild toxic and edible Amanita mushrooms by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry http://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1289 <p>Since ages, foraging and consumption of wild mushrooms is practiced in different parts of the world. Despite having various health benefits, few mushroom species are known for causing toxicity as well. In forensic casework conditions, samples from mushroom poisoning cases could be found in dried or powdered form. So, it becomes necessary to characterize mushroom species for the identification purposes. In the present study, volatile fraction of five wild toxic and edible <em>Amanita</em> mushroom species (<em>Amanita muscaria, Amanita pantherina, Amanita caesarea, Amanita subglobosa </em>and<em> Amanita porphyria</em>) was analyzed so as to identify compounds for the characterization of selected mushroom species. The secondary metabolites present in the volatile fraction were assessed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The obtained volatile fractions were broadly classified into chemical classes: alcohols, acids, esters, aldehydes, ketones, nitrogen-containing compounds and miscellaneous. Some compounds such as octadecanoic acid, 9-octadecenoic acid (z)-, ethane, 1-chloro-1-fluoro- were the most abundant. The present approach using GC-MS aims to detect a large number of compounds to get a fingerprint of each sample for the discrimination purpose. Also, this work is a first study on the forensic analysis of volatile composition <em>Amanita</em> mushroom species from the north-western Himalayan region of India.&nbsp;</p> Rajinder Singh Copyright (c) 2 1 Chemical Method to Recycling Slag Steel Powder and use it in Showing Finger Print http://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1287 <p>Four samples of west iron slag powder in different concentration (sample 1 is poured iron slag powder, sample 2 is 20 of slag and 2.5g of Na OH, sample 3 is 30 of slag and 5g of Na OH and sample 4 is 40 of slag and 7.5g of Na OH) with the chemical method<strong>.</strong> The basic component of all samples was identified by the SEM-EDS detector device and the most important elements found in all samples are (O, S, Zn, and Na) and the items have disappeared (Mg, Mn, Ba, Al, and Cr) than the pour sample. The crystal structure of all samples characterized at room temperature using X-ray diffractometer, and according to Scherer's equation the calculation average crystal size of all samples and it became (for sample 1 is pour iron slag powder equal 9.3 nm, for sample 2 is 20 of slag and 2.5g of Na OH equal 7.0 nm, for sample 3 is 30 of slag and 5g of Na OH equal 10.3 nm and for sample 4 is 40 of slag and 7.5g of Na OH equal 12.0 nm). Applied all samples that made in fingerprinting showing.</p> Abdelazem Mohamed Copyright (c) 2 1 Reading in the book “Scientific Documentation: A Guide to Scientific Publishing http://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1277 <p>This research sheds light on the book "The Scientific<br>Publication Guide" prepared by the American Psychological<br>Association in the English language, and translated into<br>Arabic by Professor Dr. Dhiyab Al-Badayneh.<br>The book dealt with all the criteria, requirements and<br>principles of publishing followed in the association's<br>journals. The researcher pointed out that despite what was<br>written about the principles of scientific research and its<br>requirements in the Arabic language; the Arab Library still<br>needs specialized evidence dealing with the standards,<br>requirements and publishing principles in a number of<br>scientific disciplines to put an end in the differences in views<br>followed in the conditions for publication, its origins, and<br>requirements in many Arab publishers.</p> Mahmoud M. S. Saed Copyright (c) 2020-08-10 2020-08-10 2 1 1492 1499 10.26735/16586794.2019.042 Study of palatal rugae patterns and its use in sex and ethnicity identification in a sample of adult Egyptians and Malaysians http://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1259 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Palatal rugoscopy is the use of palatal rugae for identification of unknown persons. The majority of the population in Egypt consists of Egyptian people. However, some Malaysian people live in Alexandria city of Egypt for the purpose of education. So in case of mass disaster, there is a critical need for a reliable and easy method to differentiate between Malaysians and Egyptians.<strong> Aim: </strong>Study palatal rugae patterns in two diverse populations; Egyptians and Malaysians and its relation to sex and population difference.<strong> Subjects: </strong>Eighty students of Alexandria Faculty of Dentistry; forty Egyptians (20 females and 20 males) and forty Malaysians (20 males and 20 females). The age ranged 18-30 years. <strong>Results: </strong>Significant difference was noted between Malaysian males and females according to total number of rugae on both sides. Malaysians had significantly higher total rugae number on both sides than Egyptians. Curved shape was the predominant shape in the total sample. Significant difference was detected between Egyptians and Malaysians according to the predominant palatal rugae direction on both left and right sides. Egyptian females had significantly higher percentage of absent unification than Egyptian males. Linear regression models for sex and ethnicity identification were built up.</p> heba hussein nermeen rady Copyright (c) 2 1 A case Report: Forensic DNA analysis identified the culprit of murder and sexual abuse of minor http://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1257 <p>A report under section 7 of the Anti-Terrorism Act, 1997 was registered at Police Station of District Faisalabad, Pakistan. A 7-8 years old boy went to a nearby grocery store and was missed. The eye witnesses reported that the boy was seen with accused on a motor bike last time. Naked dead body of the victim tied with clothing was found from sugarcane fields.&nbsp; On autopsy, three incised wounds on neck cutting trachea, jugular veins and abdomen resulting in protrusion of the gut were found. Post mortem medico legal examination was indicative of sexual abuse of the child prior to murder. &nbsp;Forensic DNA analysis demonstrated the seminal material on anal swabs of the victim belongs to suspect. The same DNA profile was also present in the nail swabs of the victim.</p> Nasir Siddique Copyright (c) 2 1 Post-mortem interval and it is connection with the RNA degradation from the dental pulp in submerged teeth http://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1256 <p>Objective: Evaluate the applicability of using the method of quantifying the RNA degradation extracted from dental pulps to estimate the <em>post mortem</em> interval, by simulating drowning conditions with teeth submerged in fresh water and exposed to different time intervals. Material and methods: The sample consisted of 80 human teeth (third molars), which were divided into eight groups and submitted to the aquatic environment, for pre-established periods of three days, and 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks. After the stipulated time and the recovery of the teeth, the removal of the dental pulp, extraction of the RNA molecule and analysis of the degradation of the molecule were carried out. Results: After the analysis, the highest number of RNA molecule (RIN) found was 6,50 and the results showed very degraded molecules, highlighting the fact that the samples were submitted to the environment, simulating real day-to-day conditions, which may have been a primary factor to justify the results found in this work. Conclusion: RNA degradation quantification method is not applicable, since it was not possible to establish a connection between the degradation of the RNA molecule and the estimation of the <em>post mortem</em> interval.</p> Bruna Saud Borges Thiago José Dionísio Carlos Ferreira dos Santos Ricardo Henrique Alves da Silva Copyright (c) 2 1 Forensic Toxicology Laboratory Guidelines: Analytical Method Validation (Version 2.0) http://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1255 <p align="justify"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Calibri, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="color: #222222;"><span style="font-family: Times, serif;">Since postmortem forensic toxicology involves analyzing body fluids and organs from death cases, interpreting that information and studying the sudden unexpected and/or unexplained deaths as coroner’s cases or fall under the jurisdiction of the medical examiner. Reliable results and valid analytical data are an essential requirement for proper interpretation of forensic toxicology cases, especially when evaluating scientific studies and daily routine work, and when presenting any toxicological findings as criminal evidence.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p align="justify"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Calibri, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="color: #222222;"><span style="font-family: Times, serif;">In contrast, the results of unreliable analyses can be disputed in court and can also lead to unfair legal judgments against the defendant, or can result in wrong treatment in cases of rehabilitation of patients. In order to establish strong evidence and make a correct decision, the lab is asked to give high quality data that are based on reliable analytical methods. For that reason, all new analytical methods used in forensic toxicology including the clinical diagnosis of causes of death require careful care during the development of the analytical method and during its application. This is also an urgent need in the context of quality management and accreditation, especially as those issues have become increasingly important in the science of poisons and drug analysis in recent years.</span></span></span></span></span></p> Abdulsallam Bakdash Jihad Al-Qudsi Huda M. Hassan Farouq Alzahrani Sulaf Assi Copyright (c) 2020-06-04 2020-06-04 2 1 76 77 10.26735/LQFP2592 Postmortem Tissue Distribution of Citalopram in a Case of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning http://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1254 <p align="justify"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Adobe, serif;"><span style="font-family: Times, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">Citalopram abuse may impair judgment and increase the risk of suicidal thoughts. This case report aims to study the postmortem tissue distribution of citalopram in a case of carbon monoxide poisoning. </span></span></span></span></p> <p align="justify"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Adobe, serif;"><span style="font-family: Times, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">Initial analysis was done by both immunoassay and non-targeted GC-MS screening methods. Carbon monoxide was identified and quantified by measuring the carboxyhemoglobin levels in spleen secretion (black bile) and spleen blood using a UV-visible spectrophotometer, while citalopram was identified and quantified by using an LC-MS-MS system. </span></span></span></span></p> <p align="justify"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Adobe, serif;"><span style="font-family: Times, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">Initial analysis showed that citalopram was present in all samples determined by immunoassay. The results of carboxyhemoglobin analysis were 85% in the spleen secretion and spleen blood, which are generally fatal levels. The results of LC-MS-MS showed that citalopram concentrations were 0.58 mg/L, 0.37 mg/L, 0.29 mg/L, 0.13 mg/L, 0.10 mg/L, and 0.01 mg/L, in the spleen blood, brain, spleen, kidney, liver and stomach, respectively. The highest concentrations of citalopram, 0.58 mg/L and 0.37 mg/L, were detected in spleen blood and brain tissue, respectively, which could be used as an alternative specimen to blood.</span></span></span></span></p> Magbool E. Oraiby Mohammed Y. Albeishy Mohammedalbadr M. Khawaji Mohammed A. Arishy Ibraheem M. Attafi Copyright (c) 2020-06-15 2020-06-15 2 1 70 75 10.26735/UCDT2862 Sodomy of Adolescent Males Presented to Pediatric Psychiatric Outpatient Clinic: A Case Series http://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1253 <p align="justify"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Adobe, serif;"><span style="font-family: Times, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">Traditional Arab culture hides male sexual abuse and considers it a shame. Instead of treating male victims of sexual assault, they are often stigmatized as homosexual individuals. </span></span></span></span></p> <p align="justify"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Adobe, serif;"><span style="font-family: Times, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">Moreover, guardians of sexually abused boys are also negatively affected. They have to choose between reporting abuse to a legal authority with the risk of labeling their child or keeping a close eye on them to prevent further abuse. However, reporting abuse to healthcare authorities does take place. </span></span></span></span></p> <p align="justify"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Adobe, serif;"><span style="font-family: Times, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">Disclosing sexual abuse in the privacy of a psychiatric clinic is often the only way for victims to be successfully treated for the psychological effects of such abuse.</span></span></span></span></p> Iman A. Seif Iman H. Diab Soha A. L. A. Ibrahim Heba Abdel-Samie M. Hussein Sara A. Ghitani Copyright (c) 2020-06-15 2020-06-15 2 1 62 69 10.26735/ORGP1599 Vitreous Humor Biochemical Indicators of Acute CO Intoxication Associated Deaths: A Review of the Literature http://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1252 <p align="justify"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Adobe, serif;"><span style="font-family: Times, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">Carbon monoxide (CO) intoxication is the inhalation of CO concentration above the tolerant threshold of the body. The quantity of CO concentration inhaled determines the level of damage which is proportional to either morbidity or mortality. The euphoria and rapidity of the mechanism of action of CO ranked it as a deleterious gas that could cause reparable to irreparable damage within a short interval. Disguised CO intoxication death is quite difficult to differentiate from that of accidental acute CO intoxication using autopsy findings. This gap is now utilized in committing heinous crimes. Postmortem use of blood is not practicable in most toxicological investigations due to fermentation and putrefaction. This has led to the use of vitreous humor in postmortem analytical toxicology. The dilemma in discriminating death truly resulting from CO intoxication from that of disguised (postmortem) CO intoxication is the quest of this study. This review elaborately takes a critical look at the literature relating to the subject of discourse with the view of drawing salient points that could be of critical importance in forensic science. A thorough review of the picture of vitreous chemistry resulting from acute CO intoxication was almost exhaustively analyzed based on the various perspectives found in the literature and other documents of importance.</span></span></span></span></p> ENI-YIMINI S. Agoro Copyright (c) 2020 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-06-15 2020-06-15 2 1 58 61 10.26735/HLAX4024 Strox (Novel Synthetic Cannabinoids) in Egypt: Medical and Legal Challenges http://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1251 <p align="justify"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Adobe, serif;"><span style="font-family: Times, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">Besides traditionally abused substances, the use of novel synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) emerged in Egypt a few years ago. Strox is a popular synthetic cannabis in Egypt that consists of smokable herbal products laced with unidentified synthetic cannabinoids. Unfortunately, threats from the escalating use of Strox in Egypt are increasing, which is a challenge for medical and legal systems. Acute Strox intoxication manifested by acute toxic psychosis and severe cases could develop cardiovascular instability and fatal coma. Strox-related toxicity could be attributed to THC analogs and anticholinergic agents along with the presence of additives such as ketamine. Limited knowledge considering exact Strox ingredients makes its identification in biological samples using standard toxicology impossible. In 2018, Egyptian law criminalized the usage of five THC analogs that are rapidly followed by alteration of Strox constituents by its manufacturer using non-prohibited cannabinoids to escape legal prohibition. Therefore, comprehensive studies are needed to identify common Strox constituents with subsequent successful detection. Moreover, the amendment of the law is essential to include any substances that have cannabis-like actions in the schedules of a prohibited substance.</span></span></span></span></p> Zahraa K. Sobh Hasnaa K. Sobh Copyright (c) 2020-06-15 2020-06-15 2 1 43 57 10.26735/FWWK7311 A Study of morphological features of footprints in Egyptian and Malaysian population http://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1250 <p align="justify"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Adobe, serif;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">Determination of sex and ethnicity is one of the main tasks in building the biological profile of individuals. Keen examination of footprints that may be found at the crime scene can give valuable clues in forensic identification. The current work aimed to study the footprint morphological features and their relation to sex and population difference. </span></span></span></span></p> <p align="justify"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Adobe, serif;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">The study was conducted on 200 adult volunteers. They were divided into two equal racial groups: Malaysians and Egyptians. The collected footprints were classified into four types based on relative morphological toes lengths. Toes inter-distance, phalangeal marks position and number, humps count and Chippaux-Smirak index (CSI) were examined. The frequency of these characteristics was analyzed statistically using regression analysis.</span></span></span></span></p> <p align="justify"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Adobe, serif;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">Among the studied morphological features, it was found that t3-t4 inter-distance, phalangeal marks number, humps count and CSI differed significantly between males and females. </span></span></span></span></p> <p align="justify"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Adobe, serif;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">As regards ethnicity, all footprints characteristics differed significantly between Egyptians and Malaysians except CSI. </span></span></span></span></p> Maram Atef Somaya Madkour Asmaa S. El-Banna Ghada Abu-Sheasha Heba Abdelsamea Copyright (c) 2020-06-15 2020-06-15 2 1 28 42 10.26735/KDRK9015 ATR FT-IR Spectroscopy: A Novel and Non-Destructive Approach for the Detection of Blood on a Single Fiber http://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1249 <table width="697" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="7"><colgroup><col width="681"> </colgroup> <tbody> <tr> <td valign="top" width="681"> <p align="justify"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Adobe, serif;"><span style="font-family: Times, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><strong>Abstract</strong></span></span></span></span></p> <p align="justify"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Adobe, serif;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">Blood is often encountered on different types of substrates in criminal investigations. Among such substrates, blood stained fabrics are one of the most commonly encountered evidence. Analysis of bloodstains on fabrics is restricted due to interference of fabric dyes, color of fabric which hampers visual identification, and limited sample quantity. Over the years, a plethora of research has been conducted to analyze recovered blood traces, however, the methods employed are limited by factors such as sample destructibility, chronophagus processing, and vulnerability to false positive results. To circumvent the aforementioned limitations, use of ATR FT-IR spectroscopy has surged as a non-destructive and reliable tool for the detection of traces of blood and other body fluids on fibers. In the present study, an attempt has been made to detect traces of blood in fibers of different types and colors using ATR FT-IR spectroscopy. The obtained results unequivocally concluded that by using ATR FT-IR spectroscopy blood can be successfully detected even on a single fiber through characteristic peaks positioned at 1650 cm</span></span><sup><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">-1</span></span></sup><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"> and 1543 cm</span></span><sup><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">-1</span></span></sup><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"> corresponding to amide I and amide II. On the basis of the IR marked protein region (1700-1500 cm</span></span><sup><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">-1</span></span></sup><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">) bloodstains could easily be discriminated from the blank fibers (except human hair, which overlapped with the peaks of bloodstained fibers) by using PCA chemometric tool. Although, further investigations are needed to be conducted, this proof-of-concept study establishes the potential use of ATR FT-IR spectroscopy for the non-destructive, rapid, eco-friendly.</span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Sweety Sharma Jaskirandeep K. Jossan Rajinder Singh Copyright (c) 2020-06-15 2020-06-15 2 1 22 27 10.26735/AYFK5009 Fatal Accidents of Children Falling into Abandoned Borewells: An 11-Year Review of Data and Literature http://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1248 <table width="697" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="7"><colgroup><col width="681"> </colgroup> <tbody> <tr> <td valign="top" width="681"> <p align="justify"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Adobe, serif;"><span style="font-family: Times, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><strong>Abstract</strong></span></span></span></span></p> <p align="justify"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Adobe, serif;"><span style="font-family: Times, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">The escalation of child fatalities due to falling into borewell has been in news in recent years. A Borewell which is a digging structure, is created by digging, driving, boring, or drilling the ground to access groundwater from underground aquifers. When these borewells don’t fetch enough water they are abandoned without taking proper measures to seal them. Children might get accidentally stuck and trapped in the tubing or the hole of the borewell through which they are unable to extricate themselves. Due to this, if immediate rescue is not done, chances of survival of the little victims get diminished. </span></span></span></span></p> <p align="justify"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Adobe, serif;"><span style="font-family: Times, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">Cases of children falling in borewells were studied from year 2006 to 2016. Data were reviewed from available literature, national crime record bureau of India, the news published in press media either as hard print, e- news, television etc. A total of 43 incidents of victims who had fallen in borewells were studied. Most of these cases were of children below 6-years with male preponderance. In most of the cases, victims died due to asphyxiation due to wedging of the body in the narrow space of the borewell. In few cases (rather 2 cases) there was water in the borewell which may have drowned the victims. </span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Nilesh K. Tumram Copyright (c) 2020-06-15 2020-06-15 2 1 21 26 10.26735/NAOX1933 Study of Fatal Firearm Cases in Allahabad Region, India http://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1247 <table width="697" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="7"><colgroup><col width="681"> </colgroup> <tbody> <tr> <td valign="top" width="681"> <p align="justify"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Adobe, serif;"><span style="font-family: Times, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><strong>Abstract</strong></span></span></span></span></p> <p align="justify"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Adobe, serif;"><span style="font-family: Times, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">This study was done to assess the pattern of firearm injuries in Allahabad amongst medicolegal autopsies in the mortuary of Swaroop Rani Nehru Hospital, MotiLal Nehru Medical College, India. It was a descriptive study including fatal cases of firearm injury which underwent autopsy from 1st of January 2015 to 30th July 2016.</span></span></span></span></p> <p align="justify"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Adobe, serif;"><span style="font-family: Times, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">The demographic information regarding the victims was obtained from the inquest report, person accompanying the victim, their friends and relatives. Autopsy reports were also used to gather additional information. Parameters studied included age and sex of the victim, site of firearm injury and manner of death. </span></span></span></span></p> <p align="justify"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Adobe, serif;"><span style="font-family: Times, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">In our study, out of 4,445 autopsies, 63 were cases of firearm injury. From these cases, 58 were homicidal, 3 were suicidal, and 1 was accidental. The results show that the age group most commonly affected was 31-40 years (26.98%). Male to female ratio was 6.9:1. The most common targeted part of the body was the chest (61.0%).</span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Archana Kaul Rahat Faraz Rai R. Kumar K. Sonkar V. Kumar Copyright (c) 2020-06-15 2020-06-15 2 1 16 20 10.26735/HKWO6585 Forensic Differentiation of Black Shoe Polish Stains using Attenuated Total Reflection- Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Chemometrics http://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1246 <p align="justify"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Adobe, serif;"><span style="font-family: Times, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">Shoe polish smears or stains are encountered as evidentiary material on a variety of substrates, particularly in cases related to sexual and physical assault, murder, theft, and robbery. This trace evidence can be used as proof of contact to narrow down the search in a criminal investigation. The identification and differentiation of samples with similar composition and the same hue can be a difficult task for the investigator. </span></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-family: Times, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">In the present work, the scope of Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy for discriminating shoe polish samples of 15 different brands is investigated in combination with chemometric tools that is principal component analysis. The discriminating power of visual analysis is 99.04 %, while in principal component analysis it is 98.09 %, which is highly significant. The blind test is carried out with unknown samples to the analyst, to predict their respective sample source. Intra-brand variation, homogeneity and the effect of different substrates on sample analysis are also studied. The reported method provides considerable results for the identification and differentiation of shoe polish samples of different brands. The stains on substrates could be identified and linked to their parent source as well.</span></span></p> Sweety Sharma Spriha Sharma Rajinder Singh Copyright (c) 2020-06-15 2020-06-15 2 1 04 15 10.26735/KAMK2533 Issue Information http://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1243 <table width="941"> <tbody> <tr> <td width="941">Issue Information</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Jan-20 June-20 Copyright (c) 2020-06-15 2020-06-15 2 1 04 77 10.26735/WRAE4492 بصمة الأذن وأثرها في الإثبات الجنائي http://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1242 <p>يُعد التقدم العلمي والتكنولوجي سمة من سمات العالم الذي نعيشه اليوم في مختلف المجالات فقد تمكن الإنسان من توظيف ذلك التقدم العلمي والتكنولوجي لتحقيق خدمة البشرية بتسهيل الخدمات وتطويرها وتقريب المسافات وبذلك أضحى الإنسان في شغف مستمر للتعرف على التقنيات العلمية والتكنولوجية الحديثة واستخدامها في شتى المجالات في المجتمع.</p> Mohamed Albajah Copyright (c) 2 1 b http://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1114 <p>n&nbsp;</p> Sachil Kumar Copyright (c) 2 1 Studies of Influence of Primary Vernacular Language (Punjabi) on secondary learnt Language (English) in Punjabi’s: A Forensic Perspective http://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1216 <p style="margin: 0in; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><span style="color: #0e101a;">The present study has been carried out to study the effect of first learned handwriting language on the secondary learned language in the population of Punjab. The aspect is prevalent in the field of language since people around the globe are being attracted to learning new languages but their native language always has some impact on the later learned languages. Punjabi is the first language taught in the schools of Punjab and other languages afterward. The subjects chosen for the study have basic knowledge of both Punjabi and English. Punjabi is the mother tongue of Punjab area and in contemporary times most of the population of Punjab leaning towards learning the English language. For this study, 1200 samples in Punjabi and English from the 100 individuals who studied both English and&nbsp; Punjabi and using these languages on a daily basis were collected and analyzed. Class characteristics like alignment, slant, size, the arrangement , connections, fluency of strokes, line quality along with the characters of letter form and formation were considered and the results were further analyzed statistically using Chi-square test. The results of the present study show that as in speaking, the mother tongue has a significant influence on the auxiliary language in a similar way earlier learned handwriting language impacts the secondary language. The study will help in correlating the writing of an individual to the ethnicity, nationality, and region based on characters present in the second acquired language due to the effect of prime one.&nbsp;</span></p> amanpreet kaur Copyright (c) 2 1 A Survey on Fire Safety and Management at Workplaces in India: Employee perspectives http://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1224 <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">One branch of Forensic Science is fire and arson investigation. Fires in India account for the loss of property and lives as seen in recent times; for example, the AMRI Hospital Fire in Kolkata, Kamala mills fires at Mumbai, Carlton Tower fire in Bengaluru, etc. In this regard, it is important to assess the present status of knowledge regarding fire safety and management. The assessment will help in initiation of better action strategies towards fire risk management and mitigation. In this research study, employee perspectives regarding fire safety and awareness at workplaces were gathered. The study provides information about fire safety protocols and preparedness of people at the workplace towards handling an emergency. It also highlights personal individual coping strategies in instances of workplace fires. The study observed that workplace safety procedures needed to be enhanced in certain cases to effectively combat and deal with fire risks. Employees were aware of personal safety procedures to be followed at fire scenes; However, awareness regarding usage of fire safety aids was found to be lacking.</span></p> Glorita Fernandes Copyright (c) 2 1 Fully revised and Updated DAMAGING SIMILARITIES IN HIGHLY SKILLED SIGNATURE SIMULATIONS --THEIR DETECTION AND AUTHORSHIP http://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1223 <p>Questioned document examination is a highly specialized and challenging field of study, because of the variety and complexity of problems that are referred to the document examiners. Detection and identification of practiced simulated forgeries is an area of forensic science which requires the professional skill, capability and acumen of an examiner, every time he (or she) is called upon to examine and report a case of this nature. This is because; firstly, the practiced simulations bear a striking semblance to the copied model and usually contains the handwriting features of the writers, the real person as well as the forger, though in varying degrees; and secondly, the skilled forger rarely leaves his own imprint in the forgery he committed. Most of the authorities on the subject have advised that the identification of authorship, in such cases, may be considered as an exception rather than the rule. Besides discussing and reviewing the work done in this regard, the authors have also presented and illustrated an intricate case study where the authorship of simulated signatures could be associated with known handwriting of the suspect forger.</p> Mahesh Chandra Joshi Copyright (c) 2 1 RECORDING VOLATILES ARRESTED IN TISSUES AND BODY FLUIDS AS A TOOL TO REVEAL CRIME AGAINST WOMEN: FORENSIC CASE STUDIES http://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1222 <table class="data" width="100%"> <tbody> <tr valign="top"> <td class="value"> <p>India is a land of versatility and its every state has its own culture. In Ancient India women were worshipped like goddess. Women were symbolized as goddess Shakti (Power) but with modernization our value devastated and now women are symbolized and objectified on the basis of sexuality. In modern era crime against women including female infanticide, feticide, child- marriage, sexual harassment, rape, kidnapping, threats, intimidation, stalking, cyber stalking, pornography, verbal abuse, physical abuse, prostitution, trafficking, dowry related violence etc. are increasing with time not only in Indian society but in all the societies of the world. The lack of education, disturbed-patriarchal mindset, loopholes in law and order, low conviction rate are few reasons that give rise to crimes like these and affects lives of millions of women. In this paper we have reported four cases emphasizing crime against women including violence related to dowry which leads to suicide, a case of kidnapping and rape of 10-year-old girl, a case of stalking which leads to suicide and another case of violence related to dowry which leads to attempt to murder. In all the four cases different household volatile substance were used to commit crime. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of substance were done by using latest techniques including Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Gas chromatography - Mass spectroscopy (GC-MS), Headspace- Gas chromatography - Mass spectroscopy (HS-GC-MS).&nbsp; &nbsp;The paper discusses various aspects of qualitative identification, and intricacies involved in interpretation of result especially opining about cause and death having forensic &amp; sociological implications.</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Pallavi Choudhary Kanak Lata Verma Rachna Chandela Lijo. T. Varghese Copyright (c) 2 1 A Quantitative Study on the Indian Population about the Psychological effects faced during the Lockdown Period of Covid19 and its Prevention Strategies http://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1221 <p>In the hard times of Quarantine, everyone is packed in their homes from children to old aged people except for the Doctors, Nurses, Police, etc. who are working tirelessly to fight against this pandemic disease. Due to the Corona Virus Outbreak, People are facing many challenges that involve getting socially isolated, Social Distancing, Children that need special care, Parenting, Work from home, Lack of Financial resources, Uncertainty and Future Concerns and many people who have been separated from their families and are not able to travel from one place to another. As a result, people are facing various psychological problems like Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), Depression, Fear, PTSD (Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder). Though there are many agencies, NGO etc. that are working to reduce pain that the people are suffering. This paper deals with applying various Psychological Strategies to minimize the risk associated with Social Isolation.</p> Nandini Gupta Prashant Singh Richa Rohatgi Copyright (c) 2 1 Sequence of Strokes: A Forensic Perspective http://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1220 <table class="data" width="100%"> <tbody> <tr valign="top"> <td class="value"> <p>Sequence of strokes has been a major challenge for the document examiner as to identify the order of strokes in which they are placed on the paper can help in getting potential evidence. As the sequence of strokes is not only limited to pen lines, it also includes the sequence of signature and seal, seal and printed text. As with the advancement of new techniques new approaches to determine the order of sequence is also being proposed using different techniques such as VSC , Adhesive tapes, Documenter- NIRVIS and Raman spectroscopy ,confocal microscope and many more. In this paper the effectiveness of different techniques which are proposed to determine the order of sequence of strokes has been reviewed and discussed to help forensic investigators to select techniques that are best suited for their purpose of examination.</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Vaibhav Saran Manisha Saraswat Copyright (c) 2 1 Non-invasive Radio Imaging Advancements in Forensic Entomology http://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1219 <table class="data" width="100%"> <tbody> <tr valign="top"> <td class="value"> <p>Radio-diagnosis is an established field in clinical practice including postmortem CT scans for better evaluation on cause of death. Applications of micro CT scan on age-specific forensic marker in immature insects as well as volumetric estimation of maggot biomass from deep tissue for precise calculation of PMI is an upcoming challenging field. The proper interpretation of images with procedural refinements are presently on a new horizon in forensic investigations.</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> SOMASISH GHOSAL Soumeek Chowdhuri Copyright (c) 2 1 Fatal subdural hemorrhage following a lucid interval in a child with misleading resuscitation artifacts http://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1215 <p><em>background:</em>&nbsp;Determination of the cause of death in children fatalities represent a great medicolegal challenging. Subdural hemorrhage (SDH) is the most common intracranial hemorrhage in infants and toddlers that is usually occurs following head trauma immediately. Resuscitations measurements could result in misleading artifacts.</p> <p><em>Objectives:</em>&nbsp;To present an unusual case of fatal subdural hemorrhage (SDH) following a lucid interval in a child with misleading resuscitation artifacts.</p> <p><em>Case report:</em>&nbsp;We present an autopsy case of A girl aged 2 years and 8 months with congested face, subconjunctival petechial hemorrhages, and circumoral injuries. There were no other injuries.&nbsp; All circumstances were in favor of homicidal smothering.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The scalp and the skull were free of injuries. The autopsy revealed a partially clotted SDH, congested cerebral vessels, and marked brain edema. There was a history of accidental head trauma three days before the onset of fatal symptoms. The suspicious oral injuries were proved to be resuscitation artifacts.</p> <p><em>Conclusion</em>: Complete and careful post mortem examination should be a role in all suspected cases. Artifacts should be taken into consideration. Fatal SDH could occur &nbsp;in children with a lucid interval.</p> Zahraa Khalifa Sobh Rageh Reda Awara Copyright (c) 2 1 Strox (Novel Synthetic Cannabinoids) in Egypt: Medical and Legal Challenges http://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1214 <p>&nbsp;Strox is a popular synthetic cannabis in Egypt that consists of smokable herbal products laced with unidentified synthetic cannabinoids [Δ 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) analogs]. Acute Strox intoxication manifested by acute toxic psychosis and severe cases could develop cardiovascular instability and fatal coma. Strox-related toxicity could be attributed to THC analogs and anticholinergic agents along with presence of additives such as ketamine. Limited knowledge considering exact Strox ingredients makes its identification in biological samples using standard toxicology impossible. In 2018 Egyptian law incriminated usage of five THC analogs that is rapidly followed by alteration of Strox constituents by its creators using non prohibited cannabinoids to escape legal prohibition.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;Therefore, comprehensive studies are needed to identify Strox constituents with subsequent successful detection.&nbsp; Moreover, the amendment of the law is essential to include all substances that have cannabis-like actions in the schedules of prohibited substance.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Zahraa Khalifa Sobh Copyright (c) 2020 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-09-01 2020-09-01 2 1 Contriving an Opinion of Cause of Death in Autopsies http://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1213 <p>Contriving an opinion of cause of death is something that requires a good expertise in subject knowledge as well as the right set of discriminative skills acquired from years of expertise. While framing an opinion other than the immediate cause of death, the first event that led to the train of further events leading to death, the circumstances surrounding death, and all the relevant investigation findings of the police officers are necessary to be considered. Decisions on the cause of death most often de facto will decide the manner of death and hence must be carefully framed without ruling out any findings.</p> <p>A forensic pathologist can give causes of death in a logical sequential manner. Hume’s and Mill’s philosophy on opining cause of death is something to be always borne in the mind of a forensic pathologist. Istanbul Protocol is the only literature mentioning as to how to opine an effect with respect to or in relationship with the causes or circumstances that directly or indirectly led to the effect. This can be extrapolated to have five different uniform and compartmentalised types of opinion as to cause of death. Unless there is certain uniformity in opining, the more are the chances of confusion among fraternity and judiciary.</p> Anu Sasidharan Nadia M. Al-Kandary Copyright (c) 2 1 Postmortem concentrations of Fentanyl, Tramadol and Carbamazepine in a case death from possible drug-drug interaction: case report and discussion http://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1205 <p>Synergistic effects are the most encountered types of drug-drug interaction in postmortem toxicology. Concomitant use of fentanyl, tramadol and carbamazepine may increase the risk of sever serotonin toxicity. The decedent was a 32-year old black man, with a history of sever migraine headache. He died after being administered several drugs to treat migraine. For fentanyl identification and quantification, sample were extracted using solid phase extraction and analyzed by GCMS (Shimadzu, Japan). For carbamazepine and tramadol identification and quantification, samples were extracted by liquid liquid extraction as described by Sciex Method and analyzed by LC-QTOF (Sciex, USA). Toxicology showed postmortem concentrations of Fentanyl 0.033, 0.025, 0.005, 0.0127, and 0.005 mg/l; Tramadol 0.143, 0.093, 0.043, 0.09, and 0.08 mg/l; Carbamazepine 1.6, 1.04, 0.3, 0.83, and 0.18 mg/l in blood, brain, liver, kidney and stomach, respectively. In this case report, combined of serotonergic drug can contribute to synergistic serotonergic effects. Therefore, drug-drug interaction is expected, and the cause of death may be attributed to mixed drug toxicity including Fentanyl, Tramadol and Carbamazepine.</p> Ibraheem Mohammed Attafi Copyright (c) 2 1 DAMAGING SIMILARITIES IN HIGHLY SKILLED SIGNATURE SIMULATIONS http://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1212 <table class="data" width="100%"> <tbody> <tr valign="top"> <td class="value"> <p>ABSTRACT:</p> <p>Questioned document examination is a highly specialized and challenging field of study, because of the variety and complexity of problems that are referred to the document examiners. Detection and identification of practiced simulated forgeries is an area of forensic science which requires the professional skill, capability and acumen of an examiner, every time he (or she) is called upon to examine and report a case of this nature. This is because; firstly, the practiced simulations bear a striking semblance to the copied model and usually contains the handwriting features of the writers, the real person as well as the forger, though in varying degrees; and secondly, the skilled forger rarely leaves his own imprint in the forgery he committed. Most of the authorities on the subject have advised that the identification of authorship, in such cases, may be considered as an exception rather than the rule. Besides discussing and reviewing the work done in this regard, the authors have also presented and illustrated an intricate case study where the authorship of simulated signatures could be associated with known handwriting of the suspect forger.</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Mahesh Chandra Joshi Copyright (c) 2 1 PHYTOMEDICENE FOR TREATMENT OF CORONAVIRUS http://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1211 <p>An epidemic of novel coronavirus (COVID-19) that&nbsp; began&nbsp; in Wuhan, China, has spread rapidly, with cases now confirmed in multiple countries in various regions. Coronavirus disease is basically a respiratory infection caused by a group of viruses infecting respiratory pathway, lungs and it can spread from person to person while sneezing or physical contact. Their common symptom includes cough, cold, fever and sore throat.Herbal medicine (herbalism) is the study and use of medicinal plants. Plants have been the basis for medical treatments through much of human history, and such traditional medicine is still widely practicing today. I nominate writing a review over the use of herbs for the treating coronavirus because of expeditious escalate of the infection, lack of knowledge regarding the treatment and increased concern of public to protect themselves&nbsp; and suggesting the way of herbalism to treat COVID-19.</p> ANUJA SHYAMRAO MORE Copyright (c) 2 1 INFORMATIVE CAMPAIGN iDENTIfyme FOR MISSING AND UNIDENTIFIED PERSONS http://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1210 <p>The identification of human remains cannot be performed through visual recognition and relies on the comparison of ante mortem and post mortem data of primary identifiers: fingerprints, DNA and dental data. A dental autopsy is particularly valuable in the identification process of skeletonized, carbonized, saponified and fragmented human remains. The challenge in the identification process is the search and collection of ante mortem data [1].</p> <p>To this end, all dental information held on the missing person can represent a precious source of individualizing information that families should share with the police or investigating agencies after reporting the disappearance.</p> <p>In June 2019 an innovative international informative campaign called “iDENTIfyme” was launched by the Human Identification Laboratory of the University of XXX aiming at raising awareness among the public, the families of missing persons and law enforcement agencies, of the need for a more timely identification process of unidentified bodies through the collection of primary and secondary dental information.</p> <p>The aim of the campaign is to widen the collection of ante mortem data related to the teeth and mouth of the missing person, by the collection of portrait pictures depicting the smile or showing front teeth [2], old radiographs [3,4], dental devices such as sports mouthguards, bite plates for bruxism, bleaching trays and old mobile orthodontic retainers. Families and relatives could hold these sources of individualizing information of a dental nature, which often risk being undervalued or not reported to police. Portrait pictures or selfie pictures can show dental features such as</p> Emilio Nuzzolese Copyright (c) 2 1 Comparative study of Handwriting based on their skill level of Hindi and English medium writers. http://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1209 <p>While comparing handwriting of different sets, the method is used to compare the class and individual characteristics. Handwriting is a visible speech which express by writing with the help of writing instrument on the writing surface. However, in some rare instance it is exceptionally seen that even the most individual characteristics are found to be similar, may be co-incidentally, in the handwriting of different individual sets. The present work focuses on investigating this assumption only by collecting the sample from the writers first language is Hindi. Handwriting analysis is an effective and reliable indicator of personality and behavior defined by your handwriting skills. Handwriting is generally learned by watching another person write when you are young, but you later develop your own style of writing, which later expresses your personality. the finding of the authors. The objective of the present study was to assess the handwriting between the Hindi medium and English medium students. Samples ratio was equally divided i.e. 50 samples from each category were collected and analyzed.</p> Diksha Tripathi Copyright (c) 2 1 Artificial aging of paper http://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1208 <table class="data" width="100%"> <tbody> <tr valign="top"> <td class="value"> <p>Artificial aging of paper is a method to imitate the paper’s natural aging process under simulated conditions to deceive someone. Not everyone can perform FT-IR spectroscopy and chemical ink analyses to determine the age, or to identify the authenticity by enquiring the sources. So, this study provides some basic tests and techniques to determine whether the claimed ‘aged’ document is really old or fabricated. This study was done by analysing of the properties of the paper viz. colour, odour, texture, and examination under the microscope and VSC to observe the fibre properties and influence of different light sources such as incident and transmitted UV, infrared, and monochromatic white light. This research yielded several observations that were different for artificially aged papers and naturally old papers. The results obtained thus tends to provide a document examiner with some preliminary tests to prove that the paper is naturally aged or artificially aged, and to differentiate between the two, before proceeding onto further authentication methods such as PSA/DNA or JSA authentication techniques, ink analysis, and handwriting or typewriting analyses. Thus, this review paper infers that this study is unique and no previous study had been done through this perspective.</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Akilan Rajasekaran Copyright (c) 2 1 Allelic frequencies and statistical data of D6S1043, PentaD and PentaE Loci in Calabria (South of Italy) http://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1207 <p>In the present study 230 unrelated healthy natives of Calabria were genetically characterized for D6S1043, Penta D and Penta E STR markers. Allele frequencies distribution and some statistical parameters of forensic interest have been calculated and compared with other published populations data. Results showed Penta E was the most informative locus based on heterozygosity, PIC, PD and TPI, while D6S1043 was less informative. Our findings confirmed these 3 loci are useful for forensic purposes and paternity tests especially if used in association with other STRs.</p> Anna Barbar Copyright (c) 2 1 Time to regulate hazardous flavouring additives in reintroduced absinthe-Green fairy" http://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1202 <p>"Absinthe" a strong aromatic green coloured alcoholic beverage with addictive, psychotropic and hallucinogenic properties has been the most popular and intriguing intoxicant since 19th century. Owing to its apparent illusive perception it was named "la fe′e verte" a French word means "the green fairy". It was condemned for inducing criminal act. Later, owing to detection of psychedelic ingredient ‘thujone’, it remained banned for 95 years; however, its fame ride over the suppleness in laws and in 2007, it was reintroduced with varying concentration of thujone laced with harmful flavouring additives. The government agencies remain focused only on lowering the concentration of thujone than controlling the use of harmful flavouring additives in absinthes. To unequivocally establish a technique for the detection of harmful flavouring additives in absinthe remained a scientific challenge for decades. Henceforth, we attempted to analyse samples of "Paranasse Absinth” by GC-MS technique. Our research outcome led to successful chemical profiling of absinthe by detection of multiple flavouring additives viz. maltose, sucrose, anethole and methyl ethyl ketone. Amongst these anethole is toxic, irritant, estrogenic &amp; cytotoxic; MEK is irritant, cancer hazard &amp; reproductive hazard, effect respiratory tract and CNS. Moreover, these two additives can also act as chemical precursors of NDPS. Hence, through this research an effort is made to secure public health &amp; to alert the private/govt. agencies regarding these health hazardous alcoholic beverages especially in COVID-19 pandemic. Our research outcome will attribute a legal check in the uncontrolled trade of potentially unsafe herbal beverages such as absinthe. &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> archna negi Copyright (c) 2 1