maram atef mostafa


Identification of sex and ethnicity is one of the main tasks in building biological profile of individuals. Keen examination of footprints that may be found in crime scene can give valuable clues in forensic identification. The current work aimed to study the footprint individual characteristics and its relation to sex and population difference.

The study was conducted on 200 adult volunteers. They were divided into two equal groups: Malaysians and Egyptians. The footprints were collected and foot was classified into four types on the basis of the relative morphological lengths of the toes. Toes inter-distance, phalangeal marks, humps, Chippaux-Smirak index (CSI) and footprint patterns were examined. The frequency of these characteristics was analyzed statistically using regression analysis.

Among the studied individual features, it was found that t3-t4 inter-distance, phalangeal marks number, humps count and CSI differed between both sexes. Males tended to have lower t3-t4 inter-distance and higher CSI. Among Egyptians, being a male was associated with a 14% increase in number of humps. Among Malaysian, males tended to have significantly fewer phalangeal marks compared to females.

As regards ethnicity, all footprints characteristics differed between Egyptians and Malaysians except CSI. Malaysians tended to have intermediate or fibularis foot types and wider toes inter-distances compared to Egyptians. Among females, Malaysians had significantly more humps and phalangeal marks compared to Egyptians. By contrast, among males, Malaysians tended to show relatively fewer humps than Egyptians and insignificantly different number of phalangeal marks. Whorl pattern was significantly higher among Egyptians than Malaysians.


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Article Type
Original Article