Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine 2020-06-08T06:30:02+03:00 Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;">The Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences &amp; Forensic Medicine (AJFSFM) is an open access (CC BY-NC), peer-reviewed, and free of charge journal dedicated to the development and application of forensic science and forensic medical knowledge and research for the purpose of law and justice across the globe. The AJFSFM is an official publication (ISSN 1658-6786) of the Arab Society for Forensic Sciences and Forensic Medicine (ASFSFM) and is published biannually by Naif Arab University for Security Sciences (NAUSS), Riyadh – Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.</p> Legislative and judicial means against emerging crimes: The crime of money laundering as a model 2020-06-07T07:52:37+03:00 Mousa M. Alqudah Abdullah A. Rababah <p>This study was designed to clarify the effective legislative and judicial means to face the crime of money laundering. It is considered a new and emerging crime, according to an integrated vision that took into account the developments of the era and its variables in order to achieve security in society. The problem of money-laundering has become a phenomenon that alarms states and individuals because of its serious effects in all aspects of political, economic and social life, as well as in its sources of support, as it is fueled by crime in all its forms. The crime of money-laundering has assumed an advanced rank for crime patterns in light of the development of information technologies and means<br>of communication. Therefore, states have sought to establish laws and resolute procedures to prevent the spread of this phenomenon. The judiciary has a duty to bring an end to a number of crimes. This is to be achieved through facing this phenomenon in legislative and judicial ways, using preventive methods, and through the enactment of<br>legislation with severe penalties and judicial application. Preventive measures must also be taken at administrative and financial levels to prevent this crime and dry up its sources. This study is divided into three main topics: the first includes the definition of emerging crimes and the importance of legislation</p> 2020-06-07T07:52:36+03:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine Issue Information 2020-06-04T12:09:07+03:00 Issue Information Issue Information <h3>Issue Information</h3> 2019-12-31T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine Alcohol and Substance Abuse in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: A Hospital -based Survey 2020-06-04T12:08:37+03:00 Abdulaziz A. Aldlgan Israa J. Hakeem Mohammed N. Alandes Majidah M. Alfahmi <p>The Government of Saudi Arabia has recognized and acknowledged substance abuse as a public health problem. As a<br>result, specialized hospitals have been established in many regions to treat substance abuse. The prevalence of substance abuse was investigated using a sample of 197 patients at Al-Amal Hospital, Riyadh, during a period of four months starting from May to August in 2018. The mean age of patients in the study was 26.5 years. The proportion<br>of patients based on substances abused were as follows: amphetamines (30.9%), cannabis (30.1%), ethyl alcohol (22.9%), alprazolam (5.1%), clonazepam (2.1%), tramadol (2.1%), heroin (1.3%), cocaine (0.4%) and pregabalin (0.4%). Patients who used a combination of two or more substances constituted 4.7%. The mean duration of abuse was 8.8 years for all the patients. Health organizations should raise awareness about these drugs and the<br>risks associated with their abuse, especially among young people. By conducting more research and developing a better understanding of the problem, treatment could be made more effective.</p> 2019-12-31T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine Crime Scene Mapping using Differential GPS and Geospatial Techniques for Simulated Outdoor Crime Scenes 2020-06-08T06:30:02+03:00 Puleno Kennao Deepak Lal Kesharwani Lav <p>Outdoor crime scene management is difficult to accomplish,especially when the crime transpired in a big area, uneven space, or an area with a lack of reference points. It is important to visualize the location of the evidence to get an idea of how the crime took place and in what manner. In this research, two simulated outdoor crime scenes were created,<br>where both manual tape measurement and Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) unit were applied to see if the differential GPS offers an accurate and reliable alternative for mapping the scene over the baseline method. A eographic Information System(GIS) was used to derive a map of the simulated outdoor scenes. The result indicates that the DGPS unit provides a consistent reading when compared to manual tape measurement, giving an average reading difference of 0.06 cm and 0.13 cm. The study concluded that the DGPS unit can be a viable alternative for mapping outdoor crime scenes.</p> 2019-12-31T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine Modern scientific means and criminal protection of the right to privacy (medical experience is a model 2020-06-04T12:08:43+03:00 Hammoudi H. Mohammed <div> <p>As a result of scientific development and the latest<br>methods of detecting and tracking criminals, debate has been<br>raised over the legality of these scientific means due to their<br>infringement on personal freedoms and the inviolability of<br>private life. Due to this, the Algerian legislator has amended<br>the Penal Code in accordance with Law 06-03 of 20 December<br>2006 and its text on the inviolability of private life in article<br>303. And as a result of developments all over the world, the<br>Algerian constitutional founder has included a legal clause<br>protecting this right in the constitutional amendment of 2016.<br>The legislator is currently seeking the enactment of Law 18-<br>07 on the protection of natural persons in the handling of<br>their data.<br>The right to privacy is linked to the freedom and dignity<br>of people, and taking in to account the seriousness of medical<br>experiments, DNA, and images in order to detect criminals,<br>the extent of the violation of this right has made us address<br>this subject.<br>So the question arises: What controls the protection of<br>the right to privacy when using modern scientific means to<br>prove guilt?</p> </div> 2019-12-31T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine Toothpaste Pattern: A Distinctive Feature of an 8 mm Bullet Fired through a Glass Target 2020-06-04T12:08:44+03:00 Narayan P. Waghmare Kulbhooshan Gupta Jagdish Naik <p>Shooting cases studied at the crime scene reveal an interesting outcome: the components of a projectile are usually disconnected and separated after firing through intermediate targets such as glass, bakelite or any other brittle materials. This study reports the forensic analysis of an 8mm soft nose bullet fired through a standard .315” sporting rifle onto glass sheets. Typical toothpaste pattern, mushroomed inward lead core was obtained in the laboratory for examinations. It is further highlighted that the lead core and jacketed portion of bullets were found separated in the cotton filled bullet recovery box after being fired through the glass targets. In such situations, interpretation and<br>correlation of these elements becomes a difficult task for the firearm examiner or crime scene investigator.<br>In the present study, typical toothpaste type patterns of the leadcore of Indian manufactured 8mm soft nose bullets were forensically examined and analyzed. Experimental data reported in this study may be helpful for firearm experts, crime scene investigators and related investigating agencies in future to correlate and interpret the evidence found at a shooting scenes</p> 2019-12-31T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine Sex Distinction in Digital Dermatoglyphic Patterns of Convicted Prisoners: A Comparative Cohort-Control Study 2020-06-04T12:08:46+03:00 Maninder Kaur Mankamal kour SettingsPreet Kamal Jatinder Kaur <p>The present study intends to analyse sex distinction in digital dermatoglyphic patterns in convicted prisoners and compare them with a normal control group. For this purpose, a sample of 184 prisoners (149 males, 35 females)<br>as well as 240 normal participants (male 120, female 120)were selected. The prisoner cohort group selected for the study was convicted for the following offences: Section 302 IPC, 307 IPC, 376IPC, 363-364 IPC, 366 IPC, 323-26 IPC. Galton’s system of classification was followed to classify various dermatoglyphic patterns. In the male criminal cohort group, the overall frequency of loop patterns (56.51%) was maximum compared to the frequency of whorls (38.79%) and arches (4.7%), while males in the control group exhibited the highest frequency of whorls (48.25%) followed<br>by loops (47.67%) and arches (4.08%). In females, loops were the most frequently occurring pattern, whereas arches were the least frequently seen pattern in both the criminal and cohort group. The frequency of arches was lowest in both the hands with higher fractional percentage in the radial side (thumb and index finger) of distoproximal axis as compared to ulnar side (ring finger and little finger) in both the groups. Pattern intensity index (13.40 vs 13.05),<br>and furuhata’s index (69.35 vs 68.47) of the criminal males and females were found to be comparable, but the Dankmeijer’s index (12.11 vs 18.93) of the male criminals was lower than their female counterparts, thereby indicating a higher occurrence of arches in the female criminal cohort group.</p> 2019-12-31T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine Postmortem Toxicology Data of Autopsied Cases in the Northern Border Province, Saudi Arabia: A Six-Year Retrospective Study 2020-06-04T12:08:49+03:00 Tarek Abdelraouf Ekramy Elmorsy Mohamed ElHafez Amira Alshaman Hanaa M. AlZaheed Ahmed S. Alenezi <div> <p>Autopsy remains the most reliable tool to study mortality causes.This project was conducted to study toxicological findings in relation to gender, age, manners and causes of death among autopsied cases from 2013-2018 in the Northern Border province of Saudi Arabia. All police, hospitals, toxicology laboratory and autopsy reports related to the autopsied cases within the period of the study were revised. Among 908 autopsied cases during the study period, 144 autopsies (15.8%) showed positive toxicological findings (136 males (94.4%) and 8 females (5.4%)). Positive toxicological findings were significantly more common in cases aged 20-40 years (p&lt;0.0001) without a significant gender difference (p=0.116). The commonest toxicological finding was alcohol 55 cases (6.5%) followed by cannabis in 27 cases (2.9%), while 19 cases (2.1%) showed carboxylhemoglobin ≥10%. Most deaths with positive toxicological<br>screens (98 cases (68.1%)) were reported to be accidental. Six cases were recorded as carbon monoxide poisoning (COP), 3 cases were recorded as alcohol toxicity, and 2 cases were registered as hypertensive induced brain haemorrhages. Brain haemorrhages and aspiration pneumonia were reported among deaths related to alcohol,<br>while intraventricular brain haemorrhage was the cause of death in amphetamine deaths. Cherry red hypostasis and pulmonary edema were found among COP deaths. In conclusion, positive toxicology data were found in a considerable percent of autopsied cases, and they can contribute directly or indirectly to identifying the cause of death. Hence,<br>toxicological screening is mandatory in all suspected deaths and screening should not be neglected in cases with absent suggestive autopsy findings.</p> </div> 2019-12-31T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine Pattern of Fatal Injuries due to Road Traffic Accidents in Khartoum, Sudan: A Retrospective Study 2020-06-04T12:08:52+03:00 Rawan K. A. Salih <p>This retrospective study was carried out to find out the pattern of fatal injuries due to RTAs as well as the sociodemographic profile of the victims. This helps in reconstruction of RTAs and suggestion of steps for prevention.<br>All the victims of road traffic accidents subjected to medico-legal autopsy at the mortuary of Bashayir teaching hospital in Khartoum, Sudan during the three month period from 1st January 2017 to the 31st of March 2017 were included<br>in the study. Out of 256 autopsies conducted during the study period, deaths due to RTA were 109 (42.6%). Males died due to RTA more than females with a ratio of 2:1. The highest number of deaths was 36 (33%), recorded in the age group 20-29 years, and the lowest number was 6 (5.5%) in the age group 60 years and above. From the majority of RTA victims, 50 (45.9%) died due to head injury followed by 29 who died from multiple injuries/fractures 29 (26.6%). Hemorrhagic shock was the cause of death in 22 (20.2%) cases. Septicemia and complications were the cause in 5 (4.6%) and 2 (1.8%) cases, respectively. Spinal injuries took the life of one victim (0.9%).<br>This study shows that there was a high percentage of RTA deaths among males of a young age. Abrasions were<br>the most common type of external injuries. The skull was the most common bone to be fractured in the accidents. And<br>head injury was the most common cause of death.</p> 2019-12-31T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine Investigation of Kerosene used as Fire Accelerant Remaining on Different Kinds of Fabrics 2020-06-04T12:08:54+03:00 Abdulrhman M. Dhabbah <p>In arson cases, the detection and identification of fire accelerants&nbsp;is of high importance for elucidation of such crimes. The present study aims to investigate the remaining fraction of kerosene hydrocarbons impregnated on four kinds of textiles (nylon, polyester, wool and cotton). The volatile fraction was collected by SPME on non-burnt and<br>burnt samples at successive times (0, 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 h.), then analyzed by GC-MS. Among the 27 characteristic compounds identified in kerosene, aromatic hydrocarbons were the predominant components, but their&nbsp;evaporation was faster than alkanes in unburnt textiles. Also, in the case of non-burnt samples, the total amount of kerosene residues was higher in synthetic tissues than in natural materials. After burning the different kinds of impregnated textiles, 22 hydrocarbons were detected with a decreasing amount over time, while the concentration of linear alkanes remained higher during the sampling time. All the partially burnt samples displayed much less kerosene&nbsp;residues than in the same unburnt samples. Unlike the non-burnt samples, the profile of kerosene amount as function of time was<br>very similar on the four investigated kinds of fabrics after burning. These results and the proposed procedure should help forensic investigators in the field of fire debris analysis, in arson cases.</p> 2019-12-31T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine Establishing Sequence of Inkjet Printer, Laser Printer and Writing Ink Strokes using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) 2020-06-04T12:08:55+03:00 Komal Saini Rajshree Rathore Ravinder Kaur Tarun Sharma Shabnam P. Kaur <p>The aim of the present study is to determine the sequence of laser printer, inkjet printer, and writing ink (ball point pen ink, gel pen ink, pilot pen ink and fountain pen ink) strokes using a low voltage (1kV) scanning electron microscope (SEM). Intersections were prepared using an inkjet printer, laser printer, and writing instruments on copier paper. About 1cm2 of intersection was cut using scissors and mounted to the probe stage of the SEM using double-sided tape. Each sample was analyzed at different operating parameters. The results were evaluated on the basis of continuity and iscontinuity of strokes at intersection point. It was possible to determine the correct sequence of printer strokes versus other writing instruments’ strokes; inkjet printer stroke versus fountain and pilot pen ink stroke; however, inconclusive results were obtained in the case of inkjet printer strokes versus ball point pen and gel pen ink&nbsp;strokes. The ffectiveness of this technique was determined by analyzing the exact sequence of blind samples. An SEM could be used as mplimentary tool with other optical methods to examine the sequence of strokes.</p> 2019-12-31T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine Determination of Psychoactive Mitragynine Drug in Suspected Kratom Species Collected from Various Geographical Areas in the Philippines: A Pilot Study on Existing Local Plant-based New Psychoactive Su 2020-06-04T12:08:58+03:00 Atty. Severino P. Uy Shaila Jr, S. Seville Jasmyne L. M. Jaranilla Yvette K. S. Desamito Reynalyn P. Barbacena Ronald J. A. Narceda <p>Kratom<em>&nbsp;</em>is a tropical tree indigenous to South East Asian countries and has been traditionally used by natives to increase work efficiency and treat selected illnesses. However, the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) classified kratom,&nbsp;<em>Mitragyna speciose</em>, as a plant-based New Psychoactive Substance (NPS) that must be monitored worldwide, due to increasing reports of abuse. Many countries, including the Philippines, do not put restrictions on the said plant species including its major psychoactive drug, mitragynine. Under this prevailing provision, a research exploration was carried out to determine the distribution of kratom trees,<em>&nbsp;</em>locally known as “mambog”, in the Philippines and authenticate species identity of collected specimens through chemical determination of mitragynine and DNA analysis.</p> <p>Various samples, specifically leaves, twigs, barks and roots,<strong>&nbsp;</strong>from claimed kratom species in selected regions of Luzon and the Mindanao Islands of the Philippines were sampled and preserved accordingly before subjecting them to instrumental analysis using Gas-Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS) and DNA barcoding.</p> <p>During the field exploration, it was well documented that claimed kratom trees are mostly present in wetland areas at low altitudes, and sometimes co-exist with local bangkal (genus&nbsp;<em>Nauclea</em>) trees. Interestingly, while locals identified some of the collected species as kratom through botanical assessment, mitragynine was not detected in some selected sampling sites. Remarkably, among tree parts collected, only leaves and twigs<strong>&nbsp;</strong>showed evidence of mitragynine suggesting further disparity among kratom tree parts.&nbsp;</p> 2019-12-31T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine Detection of the Timing of Human Skin Wounds by Immunohistochemical Analysis of CD14 2020-06-04T12:09:01+03:00 Azza A. Fouad Fatma M. M. Badr El Dine Heba M. K. El Dine Menesy Amany A. Abdelatif Amany A. Abdelatif Rasha I. Khedr <p>Determination of time of injury is one of the most important topics in forensic autopsy. Several researches have been developed to estimate wound age, unfortunately with limited success. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the efficacy of Cluster of Differentiation 14 (CD14) as a reliable marker for estimating wound age. The study was conducted on forty bodies of victims with different types of wound and known infliction time. Skin samples were obtained during autopsy from the center of the wound. Sections from samples were histologically examined by H &amp; E stain. Immunohistochemical staining was done using CD14 antibody and the staining density was evaluated semi-quantitatively. There was a statistically significant relation between wound&nbsp;age and percentage of CD14 expression. Expression of CD14&nbsp;was 61.81±6.55 % in specimens from wounds aged less than 12&nbsp;hours. It increased till reaching its maximum (96.40±3.78 %) for&nbsp;wounds aged between 1-3 days. Then it decreased dramatically to&nbsp;14.80±3.49 % in wounds older than 3 days.&nbsp;CD14 is proved to be a reliable marker for estimating wound&nbsp;age. It gave best results in wounds aged between 1-3 days with an&nbsp;overall accuracy of 100%. Accordingly, it can be used to determine wound age in medicolegal practice.</p> 2019-12-31T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine A Battered Child or Electrocution? 2020-06-04T12:09:09+03:00 Nabeel G. Hashim Mohammed A. Mankhi Muataz A. Al-Qazzaz <p>The dead body of a 13-year-old boy was transferred from the Department of Forensic Medicine in Al-Qadisiya Health<br>Directorate, Al-Qadisiya province to the main medico-legal directorate in Baghdad. Bruises were scattered all over his body with bite marks on his left shoulder and superficial wounds in different regions, in addition to a bruise similar to a ligature around the neck. There was also an electrocution burn on the right forearm. The body was transferred because of the unavailability of forensic pathologists in that region and the difficulty of performing the autopsy by other doctors in order to give a proper autopsy report to the court and whether it was a case of battered child syndrome, electrocution, or homicide through injuries the perpetrator tried to conceal. It was revealed that the boy was lectrocuted, and electrocution was recorded as the cause of death.</p> 2019-12-31T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine Statistical Calculations in Case of Brother-Sister Incest 2020-06-04T12:09:15+03:00 Nadia F. Salman Hanan K. Mahmood Sp.B. Eman A. Hussain <p>Incest is a sexual activity that happens between close family members that are not allowed to get married due to customs or law. In a case of incest between a brother and his married sister, a paternity test and a<br>statistical analysis were performed at the laboratories of the Paternity and Kinship Division of the Medico-legal Directorate Baghdad, Iraq. Blood samples were taken from the concerned subjects in this case (newborn baby, mother, alleged father, and the husband) and placed on FTA cards. DNA extraction was done using Chelex®, then the<br>amplification of extracted DNA was carried out using an AmpFlSTR® Identifiler kit. PCR products were run with a 3130xl Genetic Analyzer, and the data were analyzed with Gene-Mapper ID® Analysis Software V.3.2 software.The analysis of DNA profiles using 15 loci as well as the statistical analysis for calculating the paternity index confirmed the allegation of the brother-sister incest, since the baby inherited all the obligate alleles from the alleged father (suspected brother). With a 99.9998% probability of paternity, these results showed that even in the case of brother-sister incest, paternity could be proved using 15 DNA locus with a high rate of certainty.</p> 2019-12-31T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine Legal Background of Food Safety Violation Internationally and in Saudi Arabia 2020-06-04T12:09:06+03:00 Samah Al Agha <p>Tackling food safety violations worldwide in general and in the&nbsp;Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in particular is a major global concern that requires ongoing evaluation and revision of the food control&nbsp;systems and laws. This paper addresses the legal classification of food safety violations&nbsp;by reviewing and examining several cases of food safety&nbsp;violations in different countries, including Saudi Arabia.&nbsp;The study is based on theoretically driven research methods.It examines primary and secondary resources on the topic such&nbsp;as laws, precedents, academic books, journal articles and reliable<br>websites. It concludes with some recommendations that could contribute to minimizing (if not preventing) food safety violations</p> 2019-12-31T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine Commentary on: Attafi IM, Albeishy MY, Oraiby ME, Khardali IA, Shaikhain GA, Fageeh MM. Postmortem Distribution of Cathinone and Cathine in Human Biological Specimens in a Case of Death Associated wit 2020-06-04T12:09:07+03:00 John M. Corkery Fabrizio Schifano Amira Guirguis <p>The interpretation of post-mortem human tissue toxicology levels may be affected by the sampling site chosen. It is important to bear this in mind when looking at the psychoactive constituents of khat (Catha edulis Forsk) that have been consumed and have contributed to or caused death.The post-mortem levels of cathine, cathinone and norephedrine/ norpseudoephedrine are very rarely reported, thereby making it impossible for toxicologists, pathologists and others investigating khat-related fatalities to decide if a level is toxic or fatal. This paper presents all the published data that exists to help start documenting this neglected area. Such information should be collected and reported on a systematic basis to facilitate correct interpretations in the future.</p> 2019-12-31T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine Forensic Examination of Counterfeit Indian Currency based on Unique Obscure High Security Features in New Indian High Denomination Currency Note 2020-06-04T12:09:04+03:00 Ritika Verma N. Ramakrishnan N. Ramakrishnan <p>Rampant cases related to circulation of fake currency notes have been reported worldwide. With the introduction of new banknotes (announced after demonetization) having advanced and exclusive security features, it is the need of the hour, especially for a forensic Scientists, to have an idea about these new features and the various methods to examine these features. Results presented in this paper are based on examination and comparison of original and suspected fake 2000 rupee Indian currency banknote utilizing physical examination methods and techniques such as physical, microscopic, digital image processing, etc. During the examination of original 2000 rupee banknote, it was found that some security features of this banknote are unique &amp; exclusive and could not be forged by counterfeiters. Counterfeiter<br>could only imitate most of the visual features of banknotes but some specific security features like OVI print, UV-fluorescent print, micro letters, etc. which are placed on all over the substrate of original banknote, could not be mimicked. However, imitation of the visual features, can at times deceives the public in general. The present case study presents a methodology which will be very useful and informative in assisting the forensic community in examination of fake currency banknotes and for future studies.</p> 2019-12-31T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine The Language of Forensic Experts: A Commentary on the Sally Clark Case ]1999-2002 2020-05-31T05:30:03+03:00 Huda M. A. Benyounis <p><br />According to the judge, jury and the public in the UK, Sally<br />Clark murdered her two sons. The prosecution forensic expert had<br />submitted his evidence using complex medical and scientific language<br />that misled the jury. The defence expert failed to challenge<br />him. A few years later, Mrs. Clark was proven innocent, as there was<br />undisclosed evidence and the language of the prosecution forensic<br />expert misled the jury. This paper raises some issues according to<br />the Sally Clark case. It includes some discussions about the expert’s<br />role in the adversarial system and also compares it with the inquisitorial<br />system. It is an approach towards understanding whether the<br />expert should stand in the witness box or not. This paper answers<br />whether the decision in the Sally Clark would have taken a different<br />direction, if it was dealt under the inquisitorial justice system<br />or other experts’ systems. Although this case has helped to re-open<br />many other cases, it has not encouraged the English criminal justice<br />system to make any changes with the expert system (especially in<br />complex forensic cases). It also affected experts who now think that<br />testifying in court is a risk. This paper presents a new approach that,<br />if considered, can protect the justice system from any miscarriages,<br />the experts themselves from being blamed and the public who look<br />at both as killers.</p> 2019-07-04T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine (AJFSFM) Application of Adobe® Photoshop® CC 2018 for Identifying the Source of HP® Color Laser Printouts 2020-02-26T07:18:12+03:00 Ahmad S. Salim Asmaa A. Abdall <p>Abstract<br />In today’s digital world, printer forensics is one of the<br />most important disciplines to reveal the authenticity of printed<br />documents and track criminals. Digital steganography<br />is an advanced approach to secure color laser printing processes,<br />but it cannot be applied to monochrome laser printers.<br />Therefore, the identity of the machine used to print color<br />questioned documents provides a valuable means for detecting<br />forgery crimes in digital forensic labs and law enforcement<br />agencies. Based on this, we introduced a new forensic<br />method that unveils the steganography (hidden information)<br />embedded in color laser printouts via an adopted preset in<br />Adobe® Photoshop® CC 2018. This forensic tool can be applied<br />as a nondestructive and indirect tool for image processing.<br />In the present work, printing, scanning, extraction, and<br />measurements for the embedded tracking dots of candidate<br />color laser printouts were conducted.<br />Thirty-five HP® color laser printers were selected with<br />different and same models with different serial numbers and<br />used to print a hundred color laser printouts.<br />The defined coded dots matrix patterns that characterized<br />the color laser machines of the HP® brand could clearly be<br />determined.<br />Therefore, this procedure could successfully be applied<br />to distinguish between various color laser printouts printed<br />by HP® printers with a variant serial number in digital forensic<br />labs with a conclusive accuracy ratio attained to one<br />hundred percent.</p> 2019-05-23T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine (AJFSFM) Anticoagulant Rodenticides Poisonings in Humans and Animals – Short Review 2020-02-26T07:49:09+03:00 Marcin Zawadzki Paweł Szpot Szpot <p>Abstract<br />Anticoagulant rodenticides (AR) are among the most commonly<br />used rodent control pesticides. The current second-generation<br />rodenticides in worldwide use are referred to as superwarfarins.<br />These substances have relatively low toxicity to humans but significant<br />toxicity to animals, including pets.<br />AR work at the level of hepatocytes by blocking the synthesis<br />of plasma coagulation factors II, VII, IX, and X as well as proteins<br />C, S, and Z, resulting in severe coagulation disorders predominant<br />in the clinical picture.<br />Deaths associated with AR poisoning are the result of haemorrhages<br />into the gastrointestinal tract, peritoneal cavity, or intracranial<br />cavities.<br />Medico-legal diagnosis of AR poisonings is based on the clinical<br />picture, autopsy, and histopathological and toxicological examinations.</p> 2019-05-23T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine (AJFSFM) A Rare Case of Cerebral Hemangioblastoma Mimicking as Anterior Choroid Plexus Cyst 2020-02-26T07:40:39+03:00 Somnath Das Rina Das Senjuti Dasgupta Chandan K. Jha <p>Abstract<br />A choroid plexus cyst may be present throughout the ventricular<br />system of the brain. A hemangioblastoma is generally found in<br />patients with genetic diseases like Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) syndrome<br />disease, but it can also be found sporadically in the spinal<br />cord, retina and in rare cases in the cerebrum.<br />An eighteen-year-old male subject was referred for autopsy<br />in Kolkata police morgue on 27/02/2017. Two hours before, the<br />patient had been brought to the hospital for severe headache; but<br />before any diagnosis could be made, he collapsed and died. On<br />autopsy, a 4cm fluid filled cyst was found in the anterior portion<br />of third ventricle and sent for histopathological examination. HPE<br />findings were consistent with a hemangioblastoma, which made<br />this case extremely rare.<br />Sudden death due to increased intracranial tension cases should<br />be properly examined for any neuroepithelial tumours like a hemangioblastoma.</p> 2019-05-23T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine (AJFSFM) A Study of Palatal Rugae Patterns and Maxillary Inter-Canine Distance in a Jordanian Population Sample 2020-02-26T07:26:44+03:00 Asmaa S. El-Banna Medyan Al-Rousan Ghada Abu-Sheasha <p>The study of palatal rugae has an important role in establishing<br />personal identity and facilitating population identification. The<br />current work analyzed the pattern of palatal rugae among an adult<br />Jordanian population and searched for any gender differences.<br />A total of 100 random dental casts were included in this study.<br />Number and pattern of palatal rugae regarding length, shape, direction,<br />and unification of rugae were identified. In addition, measurement<br />of maxillary intercanine widths (MIW) using digital Vernier<br />caliper was done.<br />Palatal rugae on the right side outnumbered those on the left<br />side. Males had more rugae in general than females. The commonest<br />rugae in both sexes were serpiginous. Primary and forward rugae<br />showed the highest frequency. A diverging form of unification was<br />more prevalent than a converging form. Apart from a total number<br />of convergent, divergent and secondary rugae, the total number of<br />other rugae differs significantly between males and females.<br />The study showed characteristics of palatal rugae in a Jordanian<br />population which could be gender specific, facilitating their identification.<br />It revealed the presence of sexual dimorphism, and sex<br />can be predicted using either logistic regression equation or CART<br />model.</p> 2019-05-23T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine (AJFSFM) Biomarkers in Forensic Diagnosis of Sudden Cardiac Death (SCD) 2020-02-26T07:44:57+03:00 Saikat Das Soumeek Chowdhuri Ritwik Ghosh <p>Abstract<br />Diagnosis of sudden cardiac death (SCD) is challenging for<br />medical professionals. For this reason, to make diagnosis easier for<br />forensic pathologists, there is a pressing need for the use of biomarkers.<br />This article highlights biomarkers that can be used in the<br />postmortem diagnosis of SCD.<br />Cardiac troponins, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and creatine<br />kinase-MB have proven to be very useful for this purpose.<br />Lactate dehydrogenase, myoglobin and tumor necrosis factor α, although<br />useful, are not efficient enough to be included in the list of<br />biomarkers for the diagnosis of SCD.<br />Previous studies have shown both positive and negative results<br />for natriuretic peptides as a biomarker, and further studies are required<br />to confirm its use as a biomarker for diagnosis of SCD in autopsy<br />cases. In living subjects, a multi-marker strategy is useful in<br />predicting risk of cardiovascular deaths. It is suggested that for the<br />diagnosis of SCD, a multi-marker strategy may be more efficient.<br />However, more studies are required to confirm this.</p> 2019-05-23T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine (AJFSFM) Criminal Violence in Libya: A Descriptive, Autopsy-Based Study of Deaths by Firearms in Tripoli 2020-02-26T07:25:34+03:00 Rania A. M. Kaka Amal A. El. Mashali Anwar M. El Arabi Ahmed A. F. Siala <p>Abstract<br />The uprisings in some Arab states during the past several years<br />developed into armed conflicts. Therefore, the incidence of violent<br />crimes has become more common with no reliable data on their<br />patterns. The present study aimed to estimate the magnitude of that<br />problem by studying the frequency and pattern of firearm deaths in<br />Tripoli, Libya.<br />A retrospective descriptive study of autopsy cases of firearm<br />deaths was conducted. The data was retrieved from medico-legal<br />reports of cases that were referred to the Forensic Medicine Department<br />of the Judicial Expertise and Research Center, Ministry of justice,<br />Tripoli, Libya during two years from the 1st of January 2014 to<br />the end of December 2015. Structured data sheets were produced.<br />Out of 4,342 unnatural deaths that were autopsied, 774 cases<br />(17.82 %) were due to firearms. Males were commonly targeted.<br />The mean age of victims was 31.7 ± 11 years with significant predominance<br />in the middle age group. Incidence of firearm deaths in<br />non-Libyans increased in 2015 to 8.5%. Homicidal cases represented<br />92.12% of cases. There was a significant relationship between<br />manner of firing and sex (p ≤ 0.001). In 95.9% of cases, the firing<br />was from a far range. Rifled weapons were used in 98.32% of cases.<br />Head and neck were targeted in 30.8% of cases.<br />There is a high incidence of illegal firearm use and firearm related<br />deaths in Libya. Societal and international efforts are needed<br />to decrease the illicit use and trafficking of such weapons.</p> 2019-05-23T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine (AJFSFM) Fingerprint White Line Counts: An Upcoming Forensic Tool for Sex Determination 2020-02-25T12:18:05+03:00 Lawan H. Adamu Abdullahi Y. Asuku Usman A. Muhd Tajuddeen L. Sa’id Sadiya B. Nasir Magaji G. Taura <p>Abstract<br />Fingerprints are one of the common forensic tools used in personal<br />identification. However, the associated secondary epidermal<br />creases of fingerprints, fingerprint white line count (FWLC), has<br />received less attention within the forensic community. This study<br />was conducted with an aim to determine the potential of FWLC in<br />sex inference among adult Nigerians.<br />A cross sectional study was carried out with 150 males and<br />150 females with age range of 18-30 and 18-33 years, respectively.<br />Live scanner (Digita persona, China) was used to capture the plain<br />fingerprint for FWLC. Mann Whitney, Kruskal Wallis and logistic<br />regression analyses were employed for determination of digit<br />variation (based on side and type), sexual dimorphism and prediction<br />models, respectively. Likelihood ratio and posterior probability<br />were used to determine the favour odd for sex inference from<br />FWLC.<br />A significant higher mean value of FWLC was observed in females<br />(2.24 ± 2.03) compared to males (0.85 ± 1.29). Absence of<br />white line was indicative of male origin in all the digits except for<br />left index digit (favor odd of 0.72 for females and 0.29 for males).<br />However, FWLC from 5 to 11 were more likely to be of female<br />origin. The best discriminator of sex was the left FWLC with a<br />percentage accuracy of discrimination of 72%. The percentage contribution<br />of the left FWLC in the discrimination of the sexes was<br />observed to range from 23.0 to 30.20%.<br />The FWLC was found to be a potential predictor of sex among<br />adult Nigerians of Hausa ethnic origin.</p> 2019-05-23T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine (AJFSFM) Forensic Analysis of Gel Pen Inks using Hyperspectral Imaging coupled with Chemometric Procedures 2020-02-26T07:23:48+03:00 Muhammad N. M. Asri Nor A. M. Noor Wan N. S. M. Desa Dzulki ee Ismail <p>Abstract<br />Forensic examination of inks on questioned documents has become<br />an important practice and the law enforcement agencies rely heavily<br />on these techniques during criminal investigations. Although nowadays<br />there are a variety of methodologies focused on the analysis of inks, the<br />combination of non-destructive nature of Hyperspectral Imaging (HSI)<br />coupled with the multivariate chemometric technique has received little<br />attention.<br />In this study, forty-five (n = 45) gel pen inks of three different colours<br />i.e. blue, red and black of five different brands were analysed using<br />HSI with the idea of classifying them according to the brand.<br />In terms of discriminating similar coloured components between<br />samples, this was achievable only on the basis of the % reflectance<br />spectra. However, arguably, there was sufficient evidence to suggest<br />that it may be possible to discriminate the samples using chemometric<br />of Principal Component Analysis (PCA). A 2-D score plot from PCA<br />analysis was enough to characterise the samples into five clusters.<br />The synergy of complementary information provided by PCA narrows<br />matching possibilities (in terms of classification) for forensic investigations<br />involving ink analysis.</p> 2019-05-23T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine (AJFSFM) Head Injury due to Cracker Blast 2020-02-26T07:39:49+03:00 Gerard P. Devnath Sanjay Sukumar Shanmugam Kandasamy <p>Abstract<br />Death arising from fireworks is not an uncommon phenomenon<br />in India. Deaths commonly arise during the manufacturing<br />process and improper handling of chemicals for<br />fireworks.<br />Here, we would like to highlight a rare case in which a<br />12-year-old child sustained a head injury due to a cracker<br />blast, which resulted in a depressed fracture over the vault of<br />her skull. In this paper, we tried to emulate the same pattern<br />of fracture on a human skull bone experimentally using the<br />same type of cracker which caused the injury.<br />This was done to give us an insight as to whether the<br />cracker was powerful enough to produce a fracture and to<br />rule out suspicion of blunt force trauma due to a weapon on<br />the head. The subsequent explosion caused by the blast produced<br />a distinctly similar pattern of fracture in comparison to<br />the fracture observed in our case.<br />The study also highlights the dangers of country-made<br />crackers handled by children.</p> 2019-05-23T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine (AJFSFM) Interpretation of Evidence: The Key to Conveying Information to Court 2020-02-26T07:41:34+03:00 Marta Da Pian Pietro Carresi Valerio Causin <p>Abstract<br />The advent of new technologies such as DNA typing, the weight<br />of scientific evidence in criminal trials of widespread publicity, and<br />the proliferation of fictional and non-fictional works in popular media<br />have contributed to making forensic science well known, although<br />perhaps not as well understood, by the general public. One<br />of the consequences of this popularisation of forensic science was a<br />sharp change in the attitude of investigators, who increasingly tend<br />to delegate to scientists the collection of information necessary to<br />identify the perpetrator of the crime. However, the prominent focus<br />on the search of biological traces or fingerprints, due to their high<br />potential for the personal identification of the individuals present at<br />the crime scene, somewhat fade the interest towards other kinds of<br />evidence, such as trace evidence. This kind of evidence is in fact<br />perceived by judges and lawyers as less informative, because they<br />think that “all plastic items are the same”, i.e. that it is impossible to<br />discriminate among mass produced items. The purpose of this paper<br />is to stress that, with sound methods for interpreting evidence, it<br />is possible to improve the communication between the scientist and<br />the Court, and to show the real significance of the analytical results,<br />in the context of the case.<br />The analysis of the traces found on a knife used in a murder<br />case were performed by optical microscopy, IR spectroscopy, and<br />UV-visible spectroscopy. The interpretation of evidence was carried<br />out according to a Bayesian approach.<br />A description of the interpretation of evidence in a case in<br />which fibres were the key evidence. It is shown that the key aspects<br />for having a high value of the evidence are the circumstances of the<br />case and the reconstruction of the events given by the prosecutor<br />and by the defence, in addition of course to a sound analytical procedure.<br />In other words, it is shown that in some cases the evidential<br />value of fibres or other trace evidence can be very high, sometimes<br />comparable to that of fingerprints or DNA: when properly interpreted,<br />trace evidence can give key information for solving cases.</p> 2019-05-23T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine (AJFSFM) Phase Transfer Catalysis in the Aid of Fingerprint Development 2020-02-26T07:22:11+03:00 Gurvinder S. Sodhi Jasjeet Kaur <p>This paper relates to the application of a novel spray formulation<br />for developing latent fingermarks on a wide range of crime<br />scene evidences. The formulation is based on a xanthene dye, rose<br />Bengal, and a phase transfer catalyst, t-tetrabutylammonium iodide.<br />It takes just 2-3 minutes to develop optimum on a broad spectrum<br />of fingerprint evidences of non-porous, semi porous and porous<br />substrates. It also detects fingerprints on items that are white and<br />multi-colored, and smooth and rough.<br />In addition, it develops fingerprints on a variety of adhesive<br />tapes, including duct tape, which is used by suicide bombers to<br />wrap explosives on their bodies.<br />It also detects impressions on such items that have been exposed<br />to water and high temperatures. The spray solution is prepared<br />in water. The ingredients of the formulation are non-toxic,<br />cheap and easily procurable.</p> 2019-05-23T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine (AJFSFM) Postmortem Sperm Retrieval and Assisted Reproduction: Issues without Solutions? 2020-02-26T07:42:24+03:00 Nilesh K. Tumram Rajesh V. Bardale <p>The issue of request for post-mortem sperm retrieval [PMSR]<br />for reproductive purposes has gained momentum in the recent past<br />in India and other countries. There are various methods for postmortem<br />retrieval of sperm. Modern medicine has progressed to a<br />stage where posthumous gamete retrieval with subsequent reproduction<br />has become a possibility. However, very little has been<br />discussed regarding guidelines orethical, social, and medical issues<br />related to such a procedure. The procedure is a boon for families<br />who might have become saddened by the untimely death of their<br />son. The procedure can be useful for not only the spouse of married<br />individuals but also to their parents. Also, such a procedure can be<br />very helpful to the parents of their unmarried son, who was their<br />sole support. However, there is no discussion of using such PMSR<br />techniques in married as well as unmarried individuals if requested<br />by close relatives. The present paper discusses the issues regarding<br />PMSR in deceased individuals and the various issues that may<br />arise.</p> 2019-05-23T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine (AJFSFM) Potential Use of Touch DNA in Terrorism Cases: A Report of Four Cases 2020-02-26T07:38:45+03:00 Noora R. Al Snan Mohammed A. Ghayyath <p>The Kingdom of Bahrain is one of the few countries that<br />has significant numbers of terrorist investigations, which has<br />allowed our scientists to develop expertise in the forensic examination<br />of post and pre-blast explosive exhibits. This paper<br />presents a review of forensic investigations into improvised<br />explosive device (IED) cases in the Kingdom of Bahrain from<br />2011.<br />A total of four IED investigations were reviewed (i.e Directionally<br />focused charges (DFC), Directional Focused Fragmentation<br />Charge (DFFC) and Explosively formed penetrator/<br />projectiles (EFP). DNA recovery utilized different collection<br />methods, such as swabbing, tape lifting, wiping and direct<br />cutting of certain separated parts of the IEDs. Samples were<br />extracted and purified with magnetic beads chemistry and<br />quantified. Low copy DNA extracts were subjected to different<br />concentration steps, and DNA extracts were amplified and<br />processed for detection to obtain reliable results. Using the results<br />of the study, we have developed the concept of Forensic<br />DNA Intelligence, which involves the extraction of human cells<br />deposited in low copy number in challenging areas within the<br />evidence which can lead to significant results.<br />This article will be very useful and informative to assist the<br />forensic community in terrorism cases applications worldwide.<br />Continued efforts must be made to re-evaluate standard operating<br />protocols with empirical studies.</p> 2019-05-23T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine (AJFSFM) Supportive Measures in the Treatment of Aluminum Phosphide Poisoning as a Trial to Reduce Mortality at Assiut University Hospital, Egypt 2020-02-26T07:29:10+03:00 Randa H. Abdel-Hady Aml A. Mohamed Marwa Kh. Mohammed <p>Aluminum phosphide (AlP) poisoning is a major problem, accounting<br />for many Emergency Unit visits and hospitalization with<br />increasing incidence of AlP toxicity in the last few years. In spite<br />of the progress achieved in the field of toxicology and associated<br />therapies, AlP is still responsible for a high rate of mortality due to<br />the rapid onset of life-threatening symptoms, ineffective treatment<br />and inadequate data on the efficacy of therapeutic interventions.<br />AlP poisoning is a serious medical emergency demanding early and<br />adequate management.<br />In this prospective study of AlP toxicity, 44 patients admitted to<br />emergency unit of Assiut university hospital in the period from 1st<br />January to 30th June 2016 were included.<br />There were 28 males (68.2%) and 16 females (31.8%). The majority<br />of the cases were in the age group from 21 to 30 years (n=28,<br />54.6%). Thirty-six (81.8%) of admitted patients were from rural<br />areas. Suicidal intake was the main mode of toxicity in 81.8% of<br />cases. About 41% of the cases were shocked at their presentation<br />and had metabolic acidosis. The mortality rate was 45.5%. The incidence<br />of death in patients treated with N-acetyl cysteine to the<br />incidence of death in non-treated patients was 1:12.<br />AlP poisoning needs more attention due to associated fatality,<br />the absence of an antidote, and a high number of youth victims.<br />Supportive measures are vital in these patients. N-acetyl cysteine<br />has a protective effect.</p> 2019-05-23T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine (AJFSFM) The Role of Voltammetric Methods in Determination of Metals in Alcoholic Beverages: A Critical Review 2020-02-26T07:43:38+03:00 Praveen K. Yadav Rakesh M. Sharma <p>Sources of metals in alcoholic beverages can be classified into<br />primary and secondary sources. High concentrations of metals may<br />lead to potential toxicity in cases of overconsumption over a long<br />period of time. Metal content in alcoholic beverages may be used<br />to ascertain their authenticity and geographic origin. Therefore, determination<br />of metals in alcoholic beverages becomes a matter of<br />utmost importance to forensic agencies.<br />Many analytical techniques are available for qualitative and<br />quantitative estimation of metals. Stripping methods can be used,<br />and anodic stripping voltammetry proves to be a cheap, sensitive,<br />reliable and less time-consuming method. With advancements in<br />the field of electrodes, the sensitivity of voltammetry has greatly<br />increased, making it an ideal analytical technique for the analysis<br />of metals in wines and other alcoholic beverages.<br />In the present review, an attempt has been made to critically<br />review the various aspects of voltammetry with particular attention<br />to stripping methods along with their application in determination<br />of metal content in various alcoholic beverages.</p> 2019-05-23T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine (AJFSFM) The Ameliorative Effect of Green Tea, Garlic and Vitamin C on Arsenic Toxicity in Male Mice: Biochemical and Histological Forensic Perspectives 2020-02-26T06:59:59+03:00 Sayed A. M. Amer Yousif A. A. Al- Zahrani Mohammad S. AL-Harbi <p>Arsenic is a heavy metal with toxic effects on human health<br />and is widely found in the environment. It is used in suicides and,<br />hence, acquires forensic impact.<br />Sixty adult male albino mice weighing 30-40 g were subjected<br />to a sub-lethal dose of sodium arsenate (40 mg/kg body weight)<br />to investigate hematological, biochemical and histopathological alterations<br />in liver and kidney. The mice were also co-treated with<br />green tea, garlic and vitamin C to reveal the protective role of these<br />herbal and synthetic antioxidants.<br />Arsenic induced significant declines in all blood parameters,<br />while green tea, garlic and vitamin C ameliorated these affected<br />hematological parameters. Alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate<br />transaminase (AST) were significantly increased in the sodium<br />arsenate treated group, while green tea, garlic and vitamin C ameliorated<br />these increases in enzyme levels. Creatinine and urea were<br />significantly increased in arsenic treated mice. These renal parameters<br />become normal in mice co-treated with green tea, garlic and<br />vitamin C. Arsenate-treated mice showed venous congestion, sinusoidal<br />dilatation, mononuclear cell infiltration and periportal fibrosis<br />in liver sections. Kidney samples from the same group revealed<br />interstitial hemorrhages, mononuclear cell infiltration, glomerulonephritis<br />and proximal tubular necrosis. Hepato-renal injuries were<br />greatly reduced, particularly in animals that received both green tea<br />and garlic.<br />The herbs used have a potential for ameliorating and protecting<br />against the hepato-renal toxicity caused by arsenic and need further<br />studies. This study revealed the possibility of using liver and kidney<br />as indicators to ascertain arsenic poisoning in forensic caseworks</p> 2019-05-23T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine (AJFSFM) Ear Prints and their impact as Criminal Evidence / بصمة الأذن وأثرها في الإثبات الجنائي 2020-02-26T07:36:35+03:00 Mashaallah O. ALzwae <p>Crime has developed as a result of scientific and technological progress. Because of this development, it can be impossible to identify the perpetrators by traditional means of proof. Traditional means of proof lack the necessary means to identify the offender as a result of them using modern methods to commit their crimes.</p><p>Criminal justice systems have relied upon modern criminal investigation techniques such as ear prints in identifying perpetrators. However, the use of such techniques as criminal evidence raises problems as to the accuracy of the identity of the individual and may prejudice human rights guaranteed by the constitution.</p><p>In this study, we attempted to identify the role of ear prints as evidence and their evidential weight before the criminal courts, and the reliability of them as evidence before the criminal judge in various crimes.</p><p>The study revealed that there is no law regulating the use of ear prints as criminal evidence. There is also a lack of agreement among specialists on the accuracy of their results, which did not reach 100%. This works in favor of the accused, based on the principle that he is innocent until proven guilty. This also shows that ear prints alone cannot be used to prove guilt, because they do not provide certain and clear proof; any conviction must be based on certainty. They need to be supported by other means of proof. However, ear prints are suitable for acquittal or recognition of victims of crime or unknown persons in the event of disasters or newborns, etc.</p><p>Ear prints are not suitable as criminal evidence in crimes with prescribed Islamic sharia punishments, because they contravene the rules of proving guilt prescribed in Islamic law.</p> 2019-05-23T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine (AJFSFM) Criminal Legality of Fingerprints and DNA/المشروعية الجنائية لبصمات اليد والبصمة الوراثية 2020-02-26T07:31:56+03:00 Youness Nafid <p><strong>The field of criminal evidence has undergone a major revolution with respect to the prosecution of crimes of all types and at different stages of public proceedings.</strong></p><p><strong>This progress is due to the rigorous scientific development in the world, which has enabled experts to be able to discover the facts of the various traces left at the crime scene, which guide the investigator to the perpetrators, contributors and participants in the crimes.</strong></p><p><strong>This study looks at a specific type of evidence, which concerns traces left at crime scenes from the human body</strong><strong>.</strong><strong></strong></p><p><strong>Given the many biological evidences that the human body may leave at the crime scene, we will focus on two of the most important evidences that can be used in the field of criminal evidence: fingerprints and DNA.</strong></p><p><strong>The paper also answers two questions: What is the extent to which these evidences are used in criminal cases? and How legitimate are each in Moroccan criminal legislation? </strong><strong></strong></p> 2019-05-23T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine (AJFSFM) What does a Forensic Linguist Really Do? A Close Reading of three Cases of Authorship /طبيعة عمل عالم اللغة الجنائي قراءة في ثلاث قضايا في تحقيق نسبة النص 2020-02-26T07:37:43+03:00 Antar Abdellah <p><strong>The present study attempts to investigate the nature of the work of the forensic linguist to find out the procedural methods used to attribute authorship of texts to their potential owners. The aim is to examine the aspects of the linguistic theory on which the work of the forensic linguist depends, and upon which he may base his assumptions and then verify their validity. To achieve this, the study follows the narrative analysis method, one of the methods of qualitative approach in humanities, which depends on the analysis of the text and tracing the human experience of the forensic linguist in his work and obstacles he encountered. The study deals with three famous cases that occupied the Western judiciary for a period of time. The first is the issue of doubt in the statement of the culprit known as the case of Derek Bentley in Britain, the issue of comparing manuscripts known as the Unabomber, and the issue attributing part of a text to one of its co-authors. It is hoped that the study of these three cases will lead to further research in this neglected area of science in the Arab world</strong><strong>.</strong><strong></strong></p> 2019-05-23T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine (AJFSFM) Digital Environment and the Provisions of Theft Under Islamic Law/البيئة الرّقميّة والسّرقة الحدّيّة 2020-02-26T07:33:43+03:00 Mustafa I. A. Khaled <p>This paper deals with an important issue concerning the relationship between Islamic sharia rules in the field of combating theft, the scientific development in the field of computers and the internet, and their uses in the evolution of methods of committing digital theft crime.</p><p>The paper is divided into four sections that look into the question of the applicability of the financial condition, the provision of taking money, the condition defining the security and protection of wealth, and the requirements of proving the crime of theft in Islamic Law.</p><p>The researcher concluded the possibility of applying the Islamic rules related to theft crime to electronic money in theory, and the difficulty of that in practice or reality due to some problems related to the nature of electronic money in some cases (information or data and programs). Other problems are related to proving the crime.</p><p>Therefore, the researcher recommends the necessity of legislative intervention to indicate the provisions applicable to this type of theft, and whether the rulings on this type of crime relate to the prescribed punishment for theft in Islamic Law or discretionary punishments.</p> 2019-05-23T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine (AJFSFM) The Role of Mutual Legal Assistance in Collecting Evidences in Cases Involving Money Smuggled out of Countries 2019-10-31T06:27:01+03:00 Elbesiky Y. Y. Marwa <p>Certain natural and legal persons who engage in corrupt practices such as embezzlement and bribery take advantage of particular countries that have strong banking secrecy provisions by lodging their assets in foreign banks of those countries. This presents a particular challenge for asset recovery processes, with procedures subject to legal difficulties which thwart attempts of repatriation.This issue demands further exploration,something that this research intends to undertake.This paper will analyze the role of mutual legal assistance in the context of the United Nations treaties and the Council of Europe treaties, which contain provisions on Mutual Legal Assistance for obtaining evidence and for the freezing and confiscation of assets. In addition, this paper will address the role of Mutual Legal Assistance in the transfer of evidence on the Swiss law. One of the key conclusions of this paper is that the process of recovering assets is complicated from a legal perspective because it applies the law of jurisdiction of the State in which the assets are deposited. We therefore recommend that developments and reforms in foreign laws be carefully examined, with particular attention being paid to provisions for Mutual legal Assistance, as well as follow-up efforts by the United Nations and the Council of Europe for adopting treaties and initiatives to support cooperation among States in criminal matters.</p> 2019-01-17T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine (AJFSFM) The Transfer of Jurisdiction in Terrorist Crimes and its Effects on the Rules of Criminal Justice 2019-10-31T06:26:45+03:00 Yasmina Ladjal Mohammed A Boulifa <p>The transfer of jurisdiction in terrorist crimes is one of the most important procedural mechanisms adopted by the judicial and security cooperation agreements within the framework of the GCC and the Arab League of States. It is characterized by a functional role that seeks to enforce justice even if the offender is outside the jurisdiction of the judicial state. This law of agreement has attempted to activate this role with a view to expanding the scope of regional protection against the threat of terrorist crime and overcoming the difficulties of multiple jurisdictions among states. It seeks to achieve this through an integrated legal system in accordance with mechanisms that enable the state that waives its jurisdiction and the state that is requested to preside over a case to establish criminal justice rules.</p> 2019-01-17T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine (AJFSFM) Trialing a Smart Face-recognition Computer System to Recognize Lost People Visiting the Two Holy Mosques 2019-10-31T06:26:23+03:00 Gutub A Abdul-Aziz Ahmed S. A Aly <p>This paper describes an integrated recognition system for identifying faces of the people. The work is intended to help recognizing lost, missing, dead, and found unknown people visiting the Grand Mosques during Hajj and Umrah seasons in the two Holy cities of Makkah and Medina in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The importance of this work is assumed increasing as the number of visitors will increase aiming to reach the total estimated number of pilgrims around 30 million as planned by the Saudi government in year 2030. The proposed technique is tested by studying faces of 100 Hajj visiting people taken randomly from 25 countries where every person is pictured from different angles and in different situations and behaviors. The different pictures built a new testing database specialized for the changes expected on faces due to Hajj &amp; Umrah situations, which was named HUFRD (Hajj &amp; Umrah Face Recognition Database). The study gave interesting results. It is just in its beginning phase where more accuracy as well as sophisticated image processing techniques would be involved for the promising future.</p> 2019-01-17T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine (AJFSFM) Understanding the Environmental Crime 2019-04-21T14:06:06+03:00 Samah Al Agha <p>Due to globalization and advanced technology, negative environmental<br />consequences result from industrial and commercial operations<br />worldwide. Tackling environmental illegalities is a major global concern<br />that requires ongoing evaluation and revision at all levels and in<br />different parts of the world. During the last century, there has been<br />increased attention given to the problem of environmental crimes.<br />Sanctions against environmental crimes must be more effective, stronger,<br />realistic and imminent. In the battle against environmental crimes,<br />several obstacles have distracted the implementation of criminal law.<br />This paper addresses the valuable role of criminal law in providing<br />effectiveness of environmental protection laws, since compliance with<br />environmental laws is not usually voluntary. In specific, this paper examines<br />some obstacles in an international context. The study is based<br />on theoretically driven research methods. It examines primary and<br />secondary resources on the topic such as assigned laws, precedents,<br />academic books, journal articles and reliable websites. Finally, it concludes<br />with some recommendations that could contribute to minimizing<br />(if not preventing) environmental crimes.</p> 2019-01-09T14:45:20+03:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine (AJFSFM) Identification of a Severely Decomposed Body by Dental DNA STR Analysis: A Case Report 2019-04-21T13:00:21+03:00 Suminder Kaur Monica Lamba Vineeta Saini <p>Of all human DNA sources, teeth are extremely resistant to environmental factors like cremation, drenching, trauma, mutilation and deterioration. Therefore, they constitute an astonishing sourceof DNA material. The present case study highlights the great effectiveness of dental DNA in identifying a highly decomposed and extremely fragile skeletonized drowned body with severe craniofacial fractures. Identification was achieved by paternity testing and positively establishing the car used in the crime as the murder vehicle by isolating DNA from the bloodstains present in the car.This study also emphasized the dire need to create a DNA database for Indian populations for conclusion of quick results.</p> 2019-01-09T14:45:20+03:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine (AJFSFM) Comparative Study of Anthropometric and Cardiovascular Parameters in Healthy Sedentary and Non-Sedentary Subjects in the Nnewi Community 2019-04-21T10:57:26+03:00 Ukoha Ukoha Ekezie Jervas Ukoha C. Clarice Mbagwu S. Ikechukwu Ogidi C. Blessing <p>In this study, the associations between sedentary and nonsedentary<br />lifestyles with certain anthropometric and cardiovascular<br />parameters were investigated.<br />The study populations consisted of four hundred (n = 400)<br />randomly selected sedentary and non-sedentary adult male<br />subjects in the age group of 25 – 55 years, from the Nnewi<br />community, who satisfied the inclusion criteria. They were<br />grouped in three (3) groups consisting of Group A (25 – 35<br />years), Group B (36 – 45 years), and Group C (46 – 55 years).<br />Out of which 207 were sedentary and 193 were non-sedentary<br />subjects. Anthropometric parameters such as: weight (kg),<br />height (cm), waist circumference (cm), hip circumference<br />(cm), and mid arm circumference (cm), and cardiovascular<br />parameters [systolic and diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)]<br />were measured.<br />Results showed a statistically significant increase in anthropometric<br />and cardiovascular parameters in sedentary<br />subjects compared to non-sedentary subjects. There was,<br />however, a significant positive correlation of waist circumference<br />(coefficient = 0.161) than hip circumference (coefficient<br />= 0.158). Among sedentary subjects, only waist-to-hip ratio<br />(WHR) had a significant positive correlation with diastolic<br />blood pressure (coefficient = 0.181, p &lt; 0.01).<br />This study provides clear evidence that there is a linear relationship<br />between physical activities and health status among<br />individuals wich can help in forensic identification.</p> 2019-01-09T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine (AJFSFM) Analysis of Ketamine, a Rave Drug in Pakistan, using Gas Chromatography Coupled with Mass Spectrometer and Flame Ionization Detector: A Case Study 2019-04-21T11:45:08+03:00 Tahir Jamshaid Muhammad Usman Muhammad Shahwar Abid Nasser Muhammad T Chaudhary Muhammad Sarwar Muhammad A Tahir <p>Ketamine is an arylcycloalkylamine, classified as cyclidine and<br />chemically related to phencyclidine (PCP). Ketamine can be identified<br />using modified Scott’s Test and Alkaline Gold Bromide test.<br />This case study involved the analysis of a Ketamine sample.<br />The sample was analyzed qualitatively by chemical spot tests,<br />FT-IR and GC-MS without derivatization. Furthermore, a developed<br />and validated method was used for the quantitative analysis<br />of Ketamine using Gas Chromatography with a Flame Ionization<br />Detector (FID).<br />The certified reference standard of Ketamine in the range of 10-<br />100μg/mL was used for developing linear correlation with regression<br />coefficient (R2 = 0.9997) for the method. The method produced<br />percentage of sample as 90.27%.<br />The above mentioned techniques and methods provide comparable<br />qualitative and quantitative analytical results helping law<br />enforcement agencies and the forensic community in screening and<br />quantification of ketamine using GCMS coupled with FID.</p> 2019-01-09T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine (AJFSFM) The Uses of Light in Criminal Investigation 2019-04-21T13:53:52+03:00 Muataz A. Al-Qazzaz <p>Rapid and perfect finding of trace evidences at the crime<br />scene is of utmost importance in criminal investigation.<br />Many of body fluids are florescent in their nature and can be<br />discovered using light with different wave lengths suitable<br />for each type of fluid which will reflect light to disclose its<br />location. The intensity of light and degree of visibility of the<br />fluid stain depend on different factors such as the type of the<br />fluid and the nature of the surface on which it has deposited.</p> 2019-01-09T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine (AJFSFM) A Study of Bilateral Asymmetry of Upper Extremities and its Effects on Stature Reconstruction amongst Nigerians 2019-04-21T11:02:00+03:00 Michael E Nandi Olaleye A Olabiyi Emeka A Okubike Euphemia C Iheaza <p>The relevance of stature prediction from body segments to a<br />forensic scientist cannot be overemphasized. But the presence of<br />bilateral asymmetry between these limbs still poses a lot of challenges<br />in ascertaining accurate values from estimates. A regression<br />equation derived from the right side and applied to the left side may<br />cause more harm than good in medico-legal investigations. The aim<br />of this study is to predict stature from limb lengths and to investigate<br />the effect of bilateral asymmetry on stature reconstruction.<br />A total of 230 healthy Nigerians (100 males and 130 females)<br />aged between 18 to 36 years were recruited for the measurement.<br />Stature, left and right limb lengths were measured in centimeters<br />in tandem with the standard anthropometric procedure. Statistical<br />analysis was done using SPSS version 20 Chicago Inc.<br />Results of this study showed sexual dimorphism and bilateral<br />asymmetry between left and right limb lengths in both sexes at a<br />significance level of p &lt; 0.01.<br />The present outcome may be found useful by Forensic anthropologist<br />and anatomist in narrowing down human individuality using<br />the regression models. Therefore, there is need for right appropriation<br />of an equation to the correct side of the body otherwise it<br />may lead to erroneous results.</p> 2019-01-09T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine (AJFSFM) Stature Prediction using Shoe Print Dimensions of an Adult Nigerian Population 2019-04-21T13:24:30+03:00 Emeka A Okubike Michael E Nandi Euphemia C Iheaza, Obun C. Obun <p>This study aimed to derive predictive equations for stature estimation<br />using shoe print dimensions of adult Nigerian medical students<br />in the University of Lagos.<br />A sample of 230 volunteers (100 males and 130 females) of Nigerian<br />parentage, aged 18 – 36 years comprised this cross-sectional<br />study. Stature and 460 bi-lateral shoe prints were obtained from<br />the participants using a stadiometer and ink pads. Data analysis was<br />performed using SPSS version 20.<br />Sexual dimorphism in stature and shoe print dimensions were<br />found to be highly significant (p &lt; 0.05), with the males having<br />greater values than the females. Paired t test revealed statistically<br />significant bi-lateral differences in shoe print dimensions for the females<br />and the pooled sample (p &lt; 0.05). The right shoe print length<br />(RSPL) exhibited the highest correlation with stature in the males,<br />females and the pooled sample, with values of 0.483, 0.607 and<br />0.772, respectively. The shoe print breadths in the males, females<br />and the pooled sample were significantly correlated with stature,<br />except the left shoe print breadth (LSPB) in the females (r = 0.148).<br />This study has demonstrated that shoe print dimensions are significantly<br />correlated with stature, with the shoe print length showing<br />more reliability in stature prediction than the shoe print breadth.</p> 2019-01-09T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine (AJFSFM) Autopsy Findings in Cases of Suspected Pediatric Homicide 2019-04-21T11:48:50+03:00 Akinfenwa T. Atanda <p>Paediatric deaths in developing countries, especially in Africa,<br />are often attributed to supernatural causes or to aged family members<br />or unfriendly neighbors. This study aims to evaluate autopsybased<br />causes of death in such cases.<br />All autopsy deaths in children less than 15 years of age in which<br />homicide was suspected from January 2001 to December 2015<br />were retrospectively reviewed. Their bio-data, circumstances surrounding<br />death and cause of death were extracted, and presented<br />in this report.<br />In the 15 years reviewed, there were 55 pediatric homicide related<br />cases. Based on autopsy findings (coupled with clinical and<br />circumstantial evidences), manners of death were classified as natural<br />(34%), accidental (31%), homicidal (9%) and unascertainable in<br />the remaining 26% of the cases.<br />The study highlights the need for forensic pathologists working<br />in developing countries to be actively involved in all stages of<br />investigating cases of suspected pediatric homicide.</p> 2019-01-09T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine (AJFSFM)