Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine <p style="text-align: justify;">The Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences &amp; Forensic Medicine (AJFSFM) is an open access (CC BY-NC), peer-reviewed, and free of charge journal dedicated to the development and application of forensic science and forensic medical knowledge and research for the purpose of law and justice across the globe. The AJFSFM is an official publication (ISSN 1658-6786) of the Arab Society for Forensic Sciences and Forensic Medicine (ASFSFM) and is published biannually by Naif Arab University for Security Sciences (NAUSS), Riyadh – Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.</p> Naif Arab University for Security Sciences en-US Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine 1658-6786 <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;You must read and accept the copyright terms and conditions(<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">click here for&nbsp;copyright terms</a>).</p> Estimation of an individual stature using anthropometric foot, outlines and footprints measurements in adult Saudi population <p><strong>Background:</strong> Identification of an individual is one of the main challenges to forensic investigators especially from dismembered and mutilated body parts. To narrow down the pool of possible suspects in forensic investigation process; footprints and foot outline found at the crime scenes are used to facilitate estimation of stature. <strong>Objectives:</strong> the current study aimed to estimate the individual stature using anthropometric foot, foot outlines and footprints measurements in a Saudi Arabian population. <strong>Subjects and methods:</strong> cross-sectional study is conducted on 200 healthy medical students from the Faculty of Medicine, Tabuk University. Stature and eight anthropometric foot, foot outlines and footprints measurements taken from both sides. <strong>Results:</strong> Saudi adult males are significantly taller than females. Values of all measurements are statistically significantly higher for males than females. Most measurements on both sides are positively correlated with stature in both sexes. Regression equations and multiple regression equations for estimation of stature from anthropometric foot, foot outlines and footprints measurements on both sides in males and females were created. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> This study has demonstrated the utility and reliability of stature estimation standards developed from anthropometric foot, foot outlines and footprints measurements in a Saudi Arabian population, with accuracy comparable to skeletal standards.</p> Shrouk M Ali Azza H Elelemi Maryna A Kornieieva Rasha M Farghaly Mahrous A Ibrahim Copyright (c) 2 2 Estimation of Stature from Lower Limbs of the Male Children of Uttar Pradesh, India. <p><strong>Background:</strong> The present study is aimed at stature estimation from lower limbs in the districts of Chandauli and Mirzapur male children, Uttar Pradesh (India). Five hundred and one (501) children aged between eight to fourteen years volunteered to participate in the study and the data were obtained through multistage random sampling in the academic year 2014-2015.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>Four anthropometric quantifications: - Stature, Trochanterion length, Tibiale-laterale length, and Biepicondylar femur breadth taken on the right-hand side in each participant (ISAK guideline) were included in the study.&nbsp; Obtained data were analyzed and an endeavour was made to ascertain the correlation and to derive a regression model between stature (dependent variable) and Trochanterion length, Tibiale-laterale length, and Biepicondylar femur breadth (estimates). All culled estimates obtained a significant correlation at P&lt;0.05. The independent t-test was utilized to compare authentic stature and estimates’ stature and all three segments were obtained subsequently.&nbsp; It signifies the developed regression models were good for estimation of stature and the Trochanterion length is very robust to estimates the stature.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The findings from this study will have important applications in the formulation of biological profiles during forensic investigations and disaster victim identification through the regression equations for stature prediction from above said body segments</p> Ajeet Jaiswal Copyright (c) 2 2 NANOTECHNOLOGY: A POWERFUL TOOL IN FORENSIC SCIENCE FOR SOLVING CRIMINAL CASES <p><em>Nanotechnology has emerged as a phoenix in the field of forensic science and proved to be of great importance in solving criminal cases where other techniques failed or lead to futile results. This field of science possess humongous potential in the field of forensic science and assist in crime detection. It holds huge amount of value in making a positive contribution in assisting forensic experts and scientists in nabbing the criminals and most importantly prevent any wrongful conviction. In the past decade many researchers have reported the satisfactory application of Nano technique in Forensic science for analysis of latent fingerprints, drug analysis in drug facilitated crimes, warfare agent detection, DNA analysis, counter terrorism, GSR detection, post blast residue analysis, security measures, etc. It has been proved to be a robust approach for detection of crime with greater selectivity, sensitivity, reliability and results are produced in a timely appropriate manner. The constant development of nanotechnology &amp; its application in the field of Forensic Science in the past decade has been highlighted and the cruciality of Nano technique in meeting the challenges in forensic investigation has been elucidated through this review article.</em></p> NILIMAMAYEE SAMAL Copyright (c) 2 2 حقائق تطوير لقاحات كوفيد -١٩ (COVID-19) ومناقشتها من منظور أمن وسلامة الصحة العالمية <p>لا يزال فيروس سارس كوفيد ٢ أو (SARS-CoV-2) أو بمسمى آخر (كوفيد ١٩) يمثل مشكلة وبائية عالمية تؤثر على الملايين، وبالتالي يحث المجتمع العلمي في العالم على تطوير لقاح فعال وتصميم تدابير مناسبة للسيطرة على هذا المرض. في الوقت الحالي، يعد التطعيم هو الحل الأكثر جدوى للعدوى من الفيروسات. على الرغم من المخاوف المحتملة بشأن الآثار الجانبية من تنفيذ لقاح سريع التطور، تهدف الورقة الحالية إلى مناقشة حقائق تطوير لقاحات كوفيد ١٩ من منظور أمن وسلامة الصحة العالمية. قام العلماء في جميع أنحاء العالم بالعمل جنبًا إلى جنب مع الشركات العالمية في كل من القطاعين العام والخاص، بترتيب برامج تعاونية بشكل متواصل للتعرف على كوفيد ١٩، إلى جانب اتخاذ خطوات متزامنة بشأن ابتكار لقاحات وإعداد خطط علاجية فعالة.</p> <p>حتى الآن، تم إجراء العديد من التجارب السريرية بنجاح للموافقة على كفاءة اللقاحات المقترحة واعتمادها للتطبيق والتوزيع. من جهة أخرى تمت معالجة مخاوف منظمة الصحية العالمية بشأن كفاءة اللقاحات: مثل مدى ارتفاع تكاليف الإنتاج والتأكد من توفيرها للبلدان النامية والفقيرة، وتأثيرها على الاقتصاد العالمي. تعرض هذه الورقة الجهود الحالية المرتبطة بتطوير لقاحات ضد وباء كوفيد ١٩، والذي لا زال يؤثر حاليًا على الحالة الصحية العالمية، الاجتماعية والاقتصادية. بالإضافة إلى ذلك، تهدف هذه الورقة إلى عرض ومناقشة المخاطر المحتملة بتطوير لقاحات كوفيد ١٩ من منظور سلامة وأمن الصحة العالمية.</p> Wedad Al-Qahtani Copyright (c) 2 2 Response to Letter to the Editor <p>This letter is a response to Letter to the Editor (Corkery J, Schifano F, Guirguis A.&nbsp;Commentary on: Attafi IM, Albeishy MY, Oraiby ME, Khardali IA, Shaikhain GA, Fageeh MM. Postmortem Distribution of Cathinone and Cathine in Human Biological Specimens in a Case of Death Associated with Khat Chewing. Arab J Forensic Sci Forensic Med. 2018 Jun 7;1(7).&nbsp;Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences &amp; Forensic Medicine. 2019 Dec 31;1(10):1473-1475.)</p> Ibraheem Mohammed Attafi Copyright (c) 2 2 Medicolegal Issues and Challenges in Clinical-Forensic Practices during COVID 19 Pandemic <p>An outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic due to the birth of a novel human coronavirus has engulfed the entire world and put it at high risk. Although the whole globe is stopped dead due to this pandemic, the world of crime is still rising with several crimes and people are still victimized and killed due to suicide, homicide, or accident. Forensic practitioners, mainly in the field of clinical-forensic medicine have to investigate those suspicious or sudden unexpected deaths, including deaths due to infection of COVID-19 via autopsy to expose the cause(s) of death. These forensic pathologists are facing many challenges and a great risk of potential infection during postmortem examination as that deceased body may be infected with COVID-19. This pandemic has led to medical malpractice and a reduced number of proper complete autopsies, which could draw a veil over the criminal offenses and conceal a truth behind death, led to a miscarriage of justice. Autopsies were ignored in most deaths during the pandemic as an exception following COVID-19 guidelines. This article enlights various medicolegal issues, risks, and challenges caused during autopsy due to this pandemic situation and also provide insights for protective bio-safety guidelines for a forensic death investigation</p> Devidas Bhagat Copyright (c) 2 2 An Overview of Forensic Voltammetric Analysis of New Psychoactive Substances <p>New Psychoactive Substances (NPS) are synthetic drugs that create similar effects as various narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances. Different NPS such as mephedrone, synthacaine, synthetic cannabinoids, etc. are available today which are sold using numerous platforms like drug markets, head shops, dark webs, etc. They are emerging rapidly and becoming popular in society because of their variable nature and easy to escape from the law. Consequently, their analysis is extremely crucial in the prohibition of drug abuse and the development of laboratory methods. This review introduces a broad overview of the analysis of various new psychoactive substances by voltammetric techniques such as cyclic voltammetry, differential pulse voltammetry, square wave voltammetry, stripping voltammetry, etc. It also focuses on various methodologies that were developed for the detection of these NPS which play a leading role in forensic investigation by providing a rapid, sensitive, and cost-effective platform of analysis. The need for the advancement of varied methods and analysis of more drugs is additionally discussed.</p> Ketan Patil Ketan Patil Astha Pandey Copyright (c) 2 2 1,2-Indanedione (IND) Reagent for Detection of Latent Fingermarks: A Review <p>1,2-Indanedione (IND) is a chemical method for the detection of latent fingermarks on dry, porous surfaces such as paper, cardboard etc. It is an amino acid sensitive fluorescent reagent for developing latent fingermarks. The method is based on interaction of IND with amino acid fraction of latent fingermarks. The method develops clear, stable, pink (also known as Joullie pink) colored fingerprints which are fluorescent in nature. It is an efficient and non-destructive procedure for developing latent fingermarks on wide range of surfaces of forensic importance. Standardized testing of IND formulation is suggested to improve the eficiency of this reagent to develop latent fingermarks on wide range of surfaces of forensic importance.</p> Sachil Kumar Devidas Sudam Bhagat Gurvinder Singh Bumbrah Copyright (c) 2 2 Differentiation of high velocity ammunition type from GSR metal element originating from different firearm: a Pilot Study <p>The examination of GSR collected from the scene of occurrence is critical to the forensic science community because it provides answers to problems such as distinguishing between entry and exit wounds, estimating the range of fire, and linking an individual to the use of a firearm. Insufficient information exists on the differentiation of ammunition type through the analysis of GSR. This study investigated the potential of differentiating between ammunition types through the analysis of its metallic residue using energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. Three firearms (AK-47 assault rifle, Self-loading rifle, and Carbine rifle) were adopted for the study. Overall, a series of 6 shots were performed from each firearm at a muzzle-target angle of 0˚ (perpendicular to the target surface).The residues were subjected to a non-destructive analysis by energy dispersive X-Ray fluorescence (EDXRF-7000, Shimadzu) without sample preparation. Gunshot residues originating from 9mm Carbine, AK-47 and Self-loading rifle produced common metal element including P, K, Cu, Ti, and Zn. Considering that, analysis of the sample residue was carried out EDXRF, it was unreliable to predict the ammunition type from the particles that originated from the firearm-ammunition employed.</p> ABHIJITSINH PARMAR Copyright (c) 2 2 An Experimental Setup to manually determine the Pen Pressure of any Author for forensic comparisons using mathematical relations <p>Pen pressure is an individual characteristic of every author. It is near decisive in determining authorship. However, it has been observed that there is no established method for calculation of this individualistic value. This paper proposes an experimental setup to manually calculate the pen pressure of an author using a simple mathematical relation between speed and pressure which considers the displacement on a writing surface with respect to time. The proposed relation can be utilized to derive the value of stress applied by the author on a given writing surface. This value can be quantified and utilised for automatic author identification systems of the future as well. The proposed methodology employs no electronic sensors, expensive experimental setups or specially designed hardware for calculation. Yet it consistently delivers a numerical distinction for every author.</p> Nidhi Sagarwal Mohit Soni Copyright (c) 2 2 Forensic dental age estimation of North Indian children using three radiological scoring methods <p><em>Background</em>: Dental age estimations, although believed to be reliable in children, have reportedly shown variations in their accuracy levels indicating regional differences. Present study aims to study the error thresholds of Nolla, Demirjian and Willems methods for age estimation of North Indian children.</p> <p><em>Method and Results</em>: Digital orthopantomograms of 168 children aged 3-15 years were analyzed for the three methods. Demirjian dental age was found to be closest to the mean chronological age as indicated by the p-value of paired t-test. The error range for Willems and Demirijian methods was ±5 years with 87.5% cases showing error within the range of ±2 years and it was ±6 years with 84.5% cases with error within ±2 years using Nolla method. Mean absolute error for Nolla, Demirjian and Willems methods was 1.09, 1.10 and 0.97 years, respectively.</p> <p><em>Conclusion</em> Willems method was better suited for dental age estimation of studied population, though none of the methods precisely estimated age of the participants. Wide variations in age estimates of varied population groups may be due to differences in statistical methods or population aspects. Thus, comparison of the methods for different populations by the same researcher is suggested to reduce certain biasness in the study.</p> Deeksha Sankhyan Copyright (c) 2 2 Ethics in medical research – An Indian Perspective <p>Ethics represents a universal code describing one’s character-an established state of the soul in different situations that require great acumen. Failure to address the ethical issues in a coherent and logically scientific manner received a host of criticism from various institutions including the non-stakes. However, in absence of clear and broadly out reached recommendations and laws concerning the use of fixed human tissues for secondary research-oriented aims, it is possible that objectionable and unethical practices might well (if not always) compromise the patient/individual autonomy. This manuscript might have never been executed had we not confronted with unnecessary queries while applying for ethical clearance of the project, which includes leftover surplus histopathological tissues for other research aims. Although with regard to the issue, the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) document proposes waiving of consent provided no direct contact is established between the researcher and the donor. The core issues concerning research on the acquired surplus human tissues (archived tissues) are insufficient as well as unclear. Pertinently, the restrictions on secondary use of biological samples and data after the completion of a particular study is a cause of concern as the leftover material(s) is made unavailable for additional research. The paradigm of informed consent should therefore, be specific and sufficiently informative regarding risks, all the usual uses of the collected samples, future research on the left over surplus human bio-banking materials, benefits to participants, benefits to society at large, ownership rights and withdrawal from participation along with its consequences.</p> Sami Ullah Copyright (c) 2 2 Allele Diversity, Haplotype Frequency, Haplotype Diversity and Forensic Genotyping of Fulanis and Yorubas resident in Ilorin, Kwara State, North Central of Nigeria <p>Nigeria is the most populous African nation comprising of over 250 ethnic groups. Yoruba and Fulani are the second and fourth largest ethnic groups in Nigeria respectively. Forensic genotyping of Short Tandem Repeats (STRs) are used in computation of Combined DNA Index System databases of individuals and ethnic groups. We examined Allele Diversity, Haplotype Frequency, Haplotype Diversity and forensic genotyping data of autosomal STRs in Fulanis and Yorubas resident in Ilorin, Kwara State and North Central of Nigeria.&nbsp;</p> <p>Samples of unrelated 25 Fulani males and 23 Yoruba males whose ethnicity were confirmed by three generations (paternal and maternal) were collected with informed consent. The samples were amplified using SureID® 21G PCR Amplification Kit containing Amelogenin and 20 autosomal STR loci: CSF1PO, D1S1656, D12S11, D12S391, D13S317, D16S539, D18S51, D19S433, D2S1338, D3S1358, D5S818, D6S1043, D7S820, D8S1179, FGA, PENTA D, PENTA E, TH01, TPOX and vWA; and genotyped subsequent to capillary electrophoresis.</p> <p>Statistical analyses of forensic genotyping parameters confirmed no deviation from expectation of Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium and no dependence of alleles between loci.</p> <p>All tested loci were polymorphic. Expected Heterozygosity and gene diversity parameters showed lower genetic diversity amongst Fulanis compared to Yorubas, possibly due to customs-prevalent marriages between cousins amongst Fulanis, but forbidden in Yoruba customs.</p> Adelaja Akinlolu Nabila Sule Maryam Muhammed David Oyedepo Maryam Olawole Mercy Adejumo Yusuf Anigilaje Moshood Yusuf Precious Omole Temiloluwa Bukoye Tomilayo Olatunji Samuel Shodiya Rahman Bolarinwa Copyright (c) 2 2 Fatal Pulmonary Thromboembolism following leg massage - a case report <p><strong>Fatal Pulmonary Thromboembolism following leg massage -&nbsp; a case report</strong></p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em></p> <p><strong>Introduction:</strong></p> <p>Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a condition that includes both deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary thromboembolism (PE). It is a major cause of morbidity and mortality after formation of DVT. Few case reports and case series of massage-related adverse events are mentioned in the literature. This case illustrates the occurrence of PE in which ended fatally in a man who develop sudden bilateral calf pain who resorted to ayurvedic treatment.</p> <p><strong>Case History:</strong></p> <p>A 38-year-old recently married man developed bilateral calf pain of one-week duration. After seeking treatment initially from a general practitioner, he decided to resort to ayurvedic treatment later. Calf massaging was done, and the victim collapses soon after massaging. He was confirmed dead on arrival at the hospital. Autopsy revealed massive pulmonary embolism and presence of DVT in calf muscles.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong></p> <p>A major deterrent to effective prevention and treatment of VTE is a general lack of awareness. Prolonged period of inactivity is a known factor that promote formation of deep vein thrombosis. He has a history of standing for prolonged periods of time and probably massaging resulted in dislodging the thrombus causing PE.</p> <p>However available data is not sufficient to arrive at a conclusion on association of PE with act of massaging. In conclusion, massage therapies are not totally devoid of risks. The incidence of adverse events is unknown but seems to be low. However even fatal effects similar to this case could occur occasionally</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Asela Mendis Copyright (c) 2 2 Qualitative Analysis of Post-blast Residue by Double Hyphenated UHPLC-(HESI)-MS/MS Technique <p>The thriving terror activity is a menace to our society. To mitigate this, there is a dire need of upgraded and innovative analytical techniques for forensic analysis of explosives. The complexity in the matrix, restrictions in the sample quantity and ambiguity in the data interpretation are the different challenges that a forensic scientist face. The solution to these problems lies in upgradation of extraction technique, screening technique &amp; confirmatory techniques. In this paper, the identification and forensic analysis of post blast residues recovered from controlled blast site has been presented. The targeted sample was extracted from soil by using Accelerated Solvent Extraction technique. The target compound was primarily identified to be PETN (<strong>PentaErythritol TetraNitrate</strong>) by color test and TLC (Thin Layer Chromatography). The confirmatory test for the target analyte was done by using a hyphenated technique LC-MS/MS (Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometer with tandem Mass<strong>). </strong>This manuscript demonstrates the viability of LC-MS/MS in Forensic Science for a fast, accurate and quality-assured analysis of post-blast residue.</p> NILIMAMAYEE SAMAL Copyright (c) 2 2 PROFILING OF BENZODIAZEPINES USING FLUOROSCENCE SPECTROFLUOROMETRY: A DETAILED REVIEW <p>Benzodiazepines (BZDs) are one of the most widely used psychoactive drugs for the treatment of anxiety and panic disorders, insomnia, muscle relaxation, epilepsy among other purposes. Given its rampant consumption worldwide, BZDs are used in a number of drug facilitated sexual assaults (DFSA), suicides and driving under the influence of drugs. Therefore, BZDs and their metabolites are commonly detected in both clinical and forensic cases. Hence, there’s a need to develop a simple and efficient method for the detection and determination of BZDs in different biological specimens. This paper provides a summary of methods for the detection and quantification of BZDs and their metabolites in commonly used biological matrices. The commonly used methods are: GC-MS, HPLC, TLC, spectrophotometry and spectrofluorometry.</p> saloni chadha Copyright (c) 2 2 Slant and Stroke as Cognitive Factors of Handedness <p>Handwriting examination is an utmost challenge for questioned document examiners and is very crucial for them to elicit the important facts that can play a significant role in the legal inquiry. In the present study, a total of 100 handwriting samples were collected at Bundelkhand University, Jhansi with an equal representation of both left-handed and right-handed writers. Slant and strokes present in the handwriting samples were visually examined with the help of a transparent grid sheet, illuminator, and magnifying glass so as to ascertain the handedness. A significant difference was observed in the handwritings of both left-handed and right-handed writers. The results of the study indicate that left-handed writers are more likely to make strokes in the right-to-left direction and slant of the letters is in the backward direction while right-hand writers make strokes in the left-to-right direction and slant of the letters is in the forward direction.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Pawan Gupta Copyright (c) 2 2 دور الميتاداتا والبيانات المخفية في التحقيق الجنائي الرقمي <p>nowadays, Technology is part of the daily activities of many people, specifically forensic investigators, who became using informational evidence Which is integrate with the forensic investigation process through the Internet with many tools to make the technology applicable to judicial circles, to become more effective.</p> <p>officials need to cope with developments to control Technological developments had made it possible to achieve significant improvements in Digital Forensic Investigation and understand all that is related to available data in a collective manner through analysis and exchange it. also to the fact that using metadata in Digital Forensic Investigation is something new and that forensic investigators should turn to this supporting evidence. The purpose of this paper is to identify the role of Metadata and Steganography in Digital Forensic Investigation.</p> <p>The study adopted the descriptive approach through which the research works reviewed in this study were chosen. Using Metadata and Steganography separately or together In Digital Forensic Investigation context, their abstracts were presented and organized in a way that achieves the study aims and answers its questions. By reviewing these researches, The study able to shed light on the challenges and issues associated with the use of Metadata and Steganography in developing solutions that contributed to anti-crime under the criminal investigation. the study also able to develop recommendations of what should be taken into account, whether by researchers when designing similar solutions or by officials when planning to use them so that they are highly effective.</p> أروى الميلبي Copyright (c) 2 2 A A Unique Allele Variant at STR Locus D2S1338 in a Paternity Testing Case <p><strong>Background:</strong> The relationship testing through DNA profiling may undesirably be affected by the rare allele variants, tri-allelic pattern and null alleles. Therefore, it is vital to report such anomalies. We report a paternity testing in a sexual assault case studied at Punjab Forensic Science Agency, Lahore Pakistan showing a unique allele variant in mother and child.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> DNA was extracted from the buccal swabs of reference samples using organic extraction method and DNA profiling was done for 15 autosomal STRs and amelogenin using Identifiler Plus kit.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> A novel out of marker range (OMR) allele variant between STR Loci D16S539 and D2S1338 was observed in the DNA profiles of victim (mother) as well as the child. At STR locus D2S1338 Twenty one different allele variant are listed at STRBase ranging from 11 to 28. The allele variant observed in this case study was appeared at less than marker range (&lt; D2S1338) with a size of 297.50 bp. The novel variant OMR allele at D2S1338 was labeled as allele 13, when compared to the other allele in allelic ladder.</p> <p>Moreover, the PFSA DNA database was searched for this unique allelic variation and it was found that this was present in only two other samples of distinct cases.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The overall frequency of this unique allele variant was 3 in 10,125 unrelated individuals with frequency of occurrence of 0.0296. According to our limited knowledge it is the first report of a novel OMR allele variant at D2S1338 in Pakistani Population.</p> Sajjad Ahmad Sadaqat ALi Nasir Siddique Qazi Laeeque Ahmad Muhammad Amjad Mohammad Ashraf Tahir Copyright (c) 2 2 Descriptive analysis of ligature composition in correlation with patho-anatomic findings in neck region due to hanging fatalities <p>Background-</p> <p>Hanging is the commonest form of violent asphyxial death cases coming for medicolegal autopsy. Ligature material is one of the most important factors determining the causation of external and internal injuries to neck in hanging.&nbsp; The material make and the surface characteristic of the ligature material are determinant characteristics of a ligature material. Study of both external and internal injuries over neck, are important in cases of hanging.</p> <p>Results-</p> <p>Hard &amp; rough group of ligature material was the commonest group of ligature material and was also the commonest group for the causation of various external injuries and internal injuries.</p> <p>Conclusion:-</p> <p>&nbsp;It was concluded that there is increased prevalence of external and internal injuries in hard make ligature materials and rough surface ligature materials. Detailed analysis of ligature materials and their types can help in correlating the various anatomical and pathological findings associated in fatalities due to hanging.</p> SHIBANAND NEPAL KARMAKAR Nilesh Keshav Tumram Pradeep Gangadhar Dixit Copyright (c) 2 2 Social media app as an effective learning-teaching module for creating awareness among Medical Practitioners regarding the legal duties. <p>Aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of social media app for creating awareness among medical practitioners regarding their legal responsibilities related to the medical profession.WhatsApp app was chosen for this study. A WhatsAppGroup of 30 volunteered medical practitioners was formed, and discussion was limited to various articles related to the legal duties of doctors in medical practice.Before the formation of a study,a pre-assessment test was taken of all participants with a peer-reviewed questionnaire, and after that, various study material circulated on the WhatsApp group along with an active discussion on the circulated study material for a period of one month. The post-assessment test was taken after one month, and the result was analyzed.It has been observed that social media apps like WhatsApp could be effective in teaching-learning methods for creating awareness on certain topics.</p> Toshal Wankhade Copyright (c) 2 2 A Case of Death Following Postoperative Rhabdomyolysis <p><strong>Background</strong>: Postoperative rhabdomyolysis is a well-known complication, especially after prolonged surgery. There are few published reports of rhabdomyolysis following ear surgery. This phenomenon of massive muscle necrosis can produce secondary acute renal failure. The risk factors have to be managed carefully during anesthetic management. We report a case male patient who developed rhabdomyolysis precipitated acute kidney injury after Reconstructive ear surgery.</p> <p><strong>Case presentation</strong>: A patient in his fourteen underwent a prolonged surgery of 08 hours and 30 minutes for repairing his amputated right ear under general anesthesia. The patient’s postoperative course was complicated by rhabdomyolysis manifested by elevated levels of serum creatine phosphokinase (100000 IU/l). Subsequently, the patient developed secondary acute renal failure necessitating hemodialysis, but at that point, he had an unrecovered cardiac arrest which led to his death. The linkage between surgical positioning, prolonged surgery time, and rhabdomyolysis is discussed.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Prolonged duration of surgery is a well-recognized risk factor in the development of rhabdomyolysis. Early recognition of rhabdomyolysis induced acute kidney injury is important in reducing the postoperative morbidity and mortality in patients. A protocol based approach could be applied for early recognition and management.</p> Hind ABOUZAHIR Copyright (c) 2 2 Fatal Fall from height and Self Inflicted Wounds-A Case of Complex Unplanned Suicide. <p>A 32-year-old man Jumped to Death in his Multistoried Apartment. He had Multiple Deep incised wounds on his Left Forearm and Neck. The incident was Concluded as Suicide after a proper Police investigation, Crime Scene Investigation, Circumstances Analysis, and Complete Autopsy. Although Suicides by Fall is not uncommon but associated Multiple Deep incised Wounds on the Neck and Extremities is not Known, Though Self inflicted Incised wounds are frequently reported. We present this Rare and Unheard case of Complex and Unplanned Suicide, a combination of Deep incised Neck wounds and Extremity Wounds in a Fatal Fall. The Crime Scene investigation, the method employed, the autopsy findings, and the interview with their relatives altogether pointed toward a suicidal etiology.</p> DINESH RAO Copyright (c) 2 2 Fatal tracheal perforation in self-inflicted stab injury to neck with a pair of scissors – A Case report <p>Self-inflicted stab wounds to neck are relatively uncommon than cut-throat injuries. We report a case of self-inflicted stab injury over the neck with a pair of scissors by a young male under the influence of alcohol. The injury was single in nature, left-sided and the tract of the wound passed through the submandibular gland, internal jugular vein, and thyroid gland eventually causing perforation of the left wall of the trachea. Grade IV subcutaneous emphysema was present in the face, neck and chest. Combination of thyroid, trachea and jugular vein injuries in self-inflicted stab wound using scissors is uncommon in forensic literature. Meticulous dissection is to be carried out to assess the tract of the injury to co-related with the weapon used in sharp force injuries to the neck.</p> KIRTHIKA RAVI Copyright (c) 2 2 AN AUTOPSY STUDY OF 64 HOMICIDAL CRUSHING INJURIES TO HEAD [BLUDGEON INJURY] <p>This Prospective Study was conducted during the period 2009 to November 2020. A Total of 9684 Autopsies were Conducted during this period, Homicidal Fatal Crush Injury Head cases comprised of 64 cases,i.e.0.66% of Cases. The Majority of the Victims were Females,72% [n-46], and Males 28% cases. Sex-related Motives were the Major Factor in Female[24 cases] Homicides, Followed by Loot in 09 cases. In Males, Loathing and Loot were the main factors contributing in 6&amp; 4 cases. The Majority of the Females Victims Occupation was Sex Worker/Prostitutes &amp; Labor Class comprising 27 % 09 cases respectively. In the Majority of Female Homicides, the Murder Weapon was recovered next to the body in 23 of the cases whereas the same was recovered in only 03 cases in Males. Granite Block or Boulder Formed the Major Choice of Bludgeon or Murder Weapon in 34 cases of Female Victims and 08 cases of Male Victims. The Majority of the Female Victims[22 cases] were Bludgeoned on the Mud floor.The Majority of the Victims in Both the sexes belonged to the age group 21-30years, contributing to 9 &amp; 21 cases in Male and Females Respectively.</p> DINESH RAO Copyright (c) 2 2 Morphological analysis of thyroid gland in cases of alleged su-icidal deaths: A prospective analysis <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> The thyroid gland is a bi-lobed structure located in front of neck weighing about 40 grams. It starts functioning at about 10th week of fetal life and plays vital role in tissue metabolism and general growth and development. It secretes three hormones T3, T4 and Thyrocalcitonin.&nbsp;<strong>Aims &amp; objective:</strong> To study association of the changes in the weight and morphology of thyroid gland in suicidal and non suicidal cases.&nbsp;<strong>Material and methods:</strong> In this prospective study, thyroid glands were collected from dead bodies brought for medico-legal autopsies to the department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology from Dec. 2015 to Sep. 2017. After removal, the weight was recorded, and then the gland was preserved and fixation done in 10 % formalin for more than 2 weeks. After 2 weeks, grossing was done and slides were prepared and studied.&nbsp;<strong>Results:</strong> In study group cases, maximum weight of thyroid gland was 27.6 grams and minimum was 18.5 grams. In control group cases, maximum weight was 26.5 grams and minimum was 18.7 grams. The mean weight of the thyroid gland in the suicidal group was 22.21 grams and the standard deviation was 2.21 grams. Of 50 study cases, 15 (30%) revealed significant pathological findings and the rest 35 (70%) were histologically normal (Fig.6). 14 of these cases (28%) revealed focal lymphocytic thyroiditis (FLT) and only 1 case (2%) showed nodular goitre (NG).&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Thyroid gland, suicide, weight, depression, lymphocytic thyroiditis</p> AMANDEEP SINGH Copyright (c) 2 2 IDENTIFICATION OF CITES-LISTED Euphorbia royleana THROUGH DNA BARCODING TECHNOLOGY: A NEW FACET IN WILDILDLIFE FORENSICS <p>Disorganized and chaotic collections of&nbsp;<em>Euphorbia&nbsp;</em>plant species from the wild resources is one of the major reason of its endangered status. According to CITES, the trade-in&nbsp;<em>Euphorbia royleana&nbsp;</em>species is prohibited under Appendix II. However, the trade continues unabated as current identification methods don't embrace potential to discriminate between closely related species.</p> <p>&nbsp;In the present study, DNA Barcoding method has been used to establish inter and intra-specific divergences of both matK and rbcL regions by using pair-wise genetic distance measurement methods for evaluating the maximum Barcoding gap.</p> <p>The&nbsp;<em>matk and rbcL</em>&nbsp;yielded 100% amplification and sequencing success rate to distinguish closely related species of&nbsp;<em>Euphorbia royleana&nbsp;</em>unambiguously.<em>&nbsp;The matk and rbcL showed</em><em>&nbsp;</em>an average of 0.031and 0.015 interspecific genetic distance divergence value respectively. Maximum number of species-specific SNPs was observed in&nbsp;<em>matK</em>&nbsp;sequences at seven consecutive sites, which could distinguish&nbsp;<em>Euphorbia royleana</em>&nbsp;from closely related species.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>The best candidate barcoding region to identify&nbsp;<em>Euphorbia royleana</em> found to be&nbsp;<em>matK&nbsp;</em>with a single-locus barcoding approach. Further, the species discrimination method was developed with the help of species-specific SNPs derived from the&nbsp;<em>matK </em>barcoding region to accurately authenticate&nbsp;<em>Euphorbia royleana</em> and provided 100 % species resolution.&nbsp;</p> Tina Sharma Mukesh K Thakar Copyright (c) 2 2 Way for Implementation of Vaccine on COVID-19 <p>From December 2019 to December 2020, the world was covered by life-threatening COVID-19. Several research institutes and companies are working hard to find a vaccine for COVID-19. The SARS-CoV-2 vaccine will soon be available worldwide. The main objective of this article is to study how to implementation of Vaccine on COVID-19 infection by good management.</p> SAMIN SHAIKH Copyright (c) 2 2 Comparison of Dry needling and medicine ball on Gastrocnemius and soleus for the range of motion after the Ankle Inversion sprain: An experimental study. <h1>Abstract</h1> <h1>Background: Ankle sprain is among the most severe sports injuries. Seventy-five per cent of this cause of damage is shocking to the inversion. Acute Ankle trauma is responsible for 10-30 per cent of sports popular in young athletes, which was of primary importance in athletes involved in running and jumping sports enhancing functional performance in patients with an acute ankle sprain.</h1> <p><strong>Purpose: </strong>The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of dry needling as compared to Medicine ball.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>60 Subjects fulfilling inclusion and exclusion criteria were selected for the study which was divided into two groups (n =30 in each group). Group A was treated with Medicine ball and RICE protocol and group B with Dry needling and RICE protocol. Here we are using cryotherapy at gastrocnemius&amp; soleus complex and lateral side of the ankle region for 10 min in both the groups. Treatment was given for 3 weeks.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The result of this study was analyzed by SPSS by using paired and unpaired T-test. Both groups had significant improvement but there were significant differences between the two groups in terms range of motion and Ankle function.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Medicine ball is more effective in reducing an improving range of motion, functional improvement of the ankle as compared to dry needling.</p> yasas chandra datla Copyright (c) 2 2 Response of forensic scientific community to Covid-19 pandemic. Review article. <p>The purpose of this review was to show the impact of Covid-19 pandemic on forensic sciences, as reflected in the publications, which appeared in 2020. The review covered following topics: Response of legal medical experts on the increased daily workload in forensic practice and enhanced risk issues arising in forensic practice, particularly regarding autopsy, drugs used in Covid-19 therapy and their toxicological significance, and influence of Covid-19 pandemic on the profile and extent of substance abuse.</p> Maciej J. Bogusz Copyright (c) 2 2 Effectiveness of Deep transverse friction massage and kinesiotaping Versus Deep transverse friction massage and sham taping on pain, disability and range of motion in patients with latent trigger points of upper trapezius: An experimental study. <p><strong>ABSTRACT:</strong>Latent trigger points&nbsp; do not cause local tenderness till direct pressure is applied . The purpose of the deep friction massage is that to maintain the mobility within soft tissues structures such as ligaments , muscles . This technique could be added with Kinesio tape to improve the range of motion .</p> <p>The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of deep transverse friction massage along with Kinesio-tape&nbsp; to compare with deep transverse friction massage added with sham taping on pain , disability , range of motion in patients with latent trigger point on upper trapezius muscle .</p> <p><strong>Methodology </strong>:&nbsp; 60 patients with latent trigger points on upper trapezius&nbsp; , age 18 to 30 years were selected &nbsp;. The patients divided into 2 groups A and B. Group A consisted of 30 patient who took deep transverse friction massage along with Kinesio taping . Group B consisted of 30 patients who received deep transverse friction massage added with sham taping. Each group had undergone 3 sessions per week for 2 weeks with 30 minutes per session ..</p> <p><strong>Statistical analysis</strong> : The result analyzed by SPSS software . The normality of the data tested by Shapirowilk test . Mann whitney U test used for group comparison&nbsp; and Wilkcoxon test applied for the within group comparison .</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong> : The deep transverse friction massage along with Kinesio taping had higher improvement of latent trigger point on upper trapezius&nbsp; as compared to deep transverse friction massage applied with sham taping .</p> Gurinder Singh Copyright (c) 2 2 Comparison of Dry needling and medicine ball on Gastrocnemius and soleus for the range of motion after the Ankle Inversion sprain: An experimental study. <h1>Background: Ankle sprain is among the most severe sports injuries. Seventy-five per cent of this cause of damage is shocking to the inversion. Acute Ankle trauma is responsible for 10-30 per cent of sports popular in young athletes, which was of primary importance in athletes involved in running and jumping sports enhancing functional performance in patients with an acute ankle sprain.</h1> <p><strong>Purpose: </strong>The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of dry needling as compared to Medicine ball.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>60 Subjects fulfilling inclusion and exclusion criteria were selected for the study which was divided into two groups (n =30 in each group). Group A was treated with Medicine ball and RICE protocol and group B with Dry needling and RICE protocol. Here we are using cryotherapy at gastrocnemius&amp; soleus complex and lateral side of the ankle region for 10 min in both the groups. Treatment was given for 3 weeks.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The result of this study was analyzed by SPSS by using paired and unpaired T-test. Both groups had significant improvement but there were significant differences between the two groups in terms range of motion and Ankle function.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Medicine ball is more effective in reducing an improving range of motion, functional improvement of the ankle as compared to dry needling.</p> MD FIROJ ALAM MD FIROJ ALAM Copyright (c) 2 2 The Effect of Elevated Temperatures on Autosomal STR Profiling of DNA extracted from Human Fingernails. <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Title</strong>: <strong>Effect of Elevated Temperatures on Autosomal STR Profiling of DNA extracted from Human </strong><strong>Fingern</strong><strong>ails. </strong></p> <p><strong>Objectives of the study</strong>:</p> <p>In this study we aim at assessing the impact of the elevated temperatures on the quality and quantity of DNA extracted from human fingernails. This will be served by obtaining the DNA profiles from human nails treated with different temperatures.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong></p> <p>DNA was extracted from all of samples using the QIAamp DNA Investigator kit, the extracted DNA was quantified using Quantifiler Duo DNA Quantification kit. PCR amplification (DNA Typing) of 15 autosomal STR markers were typed along with Amelogenin using the Applied Biosystems AmpFlSTR® Identifiler™ kit. Amplification products were analyzed according to the procedures described in the user's manual of the 16-capillary 3130XL Genetic Analyzer (Applied Biosystems).</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong></p> <p>The experimental work reveals that the concentration of the extracted DNA from human fingernails decreases gradually with elevating the temperature. The exposure of human nails to high temperatures (ranges from 50 to 150°C) results in the disappearance of some STR loci and partial STR profiles.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>:</p> <p>Human nails can be considered as a good source for extracting DNA and determining STR profiles. The exposure of human nails to high temperatures (ranges from 50 to 150°C) leads to the disappearance of some STR loci and partial disappearance of STR profiles so the nails are not suitable for identification purposes in great fires (1-2 hours long).</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Amany Abdel Hakim Moussa Copyright (c) 2 2 An Intelligent Model for Text Forensics from Arabic Twitter Posts <p>The number of twitter users in Arab countries at a rapid pace of growth. As for the social networking platforms, they are a suitable environment for luring innocent users and commit different forms of crimes against them by cyber predators through claiming something they are not such as fake ID, age or gender targeting certain segments of the society. This have resulted in a huge number of cybercrimes including Phishing, harassment, cyber terrorism and many other forms. In this context, a number of different research efforts in the literature are available for English but very rare for Arabic texts. This article proposes an intelligent technique for enhancing text preprocessing that impacting the accuracy and performance of the classification task. The proposed model was evaluated against recently collected dataset from Arabic twitter users using different classifiers including naïve bays and neural networks to predict age attribute.</p> Hussein Y. AbuMansour Fahad S. Almekhlafi Copyright (c) 2020 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine 2020-07-25 2020-07-25 2 2 172 178 10.26735/ZTON7830 Criminal Trademark Protection in Algerian Law and Saudi Legal System <p>To distinguish products and services from each other and to ensure the consumer or the buyer does not confuse them, create their own trademarks to promote their products, protect them from counterfeit and to attract customers and allow them to choose and differentiate between similar products and services available in the market.<br />Given the importance of the brand as a means of expressing the identity of the product or the service attributed to it and the identification of its owner, it was necessary to surround it with a certain number of legal guarantees in order to protect it so it is not subject counterfeiting or forgery.<br />This study, therefore, seeks to identify the mechanisms of legal protection prescribed for the brand in the Algerian and Saudi legislations, in order to determine the extent of the similarity between the two legislations. The study concludes that the Algerian and Saudi legislators took a positive stance by approving the criminal protection of the trademark and imposing deterrent penalties according to which they achieve the purpose of the punishment. O the other hand, they are reproached for attaching the protection to a formal procedure, which is the deposit of the mark or its registration as a condition for its protection.</p> <p>The study <br />Accordingly, this study believes it is necessary to reconsider the conditions of protection established for the trademark. It is not reasonable for the right holder to be deprived of their right just because they did not take a formal procedure.</p> Belhadj Belkheir Djama Malika Copyright (c) 2020 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine 2020-08-02 2020-08-02 2 2 222 240 10.26735/QSBB1745 Manifestations of Criminal Protection of the Right to be Forgotten <table width="907"> <tbody> <tr> <td width="708"> <p>This paper examines one of the personal rights that have emerged from the activities of users on the internet and social media networks. This right has been termed as ‘the right to be forgotten’ and necessitates that a person can erase data and painful memories shared with others at some point in time on the internet.</p> <p>The paper tried to ascertain whether the available legal texts adequately establish the desired criminal protection for this type of right, which was not previously known. This required addressing the issue by dividing it into two sections: The first one was devoted to the conceptual framework of the right to be forgotten, and the second one was devoted to examining the legal framework for criminal protection of this right.</p> <p>The paper concluded that the criminal protection of the right to be forgotten is not satisfactory, because many countries have not passed laws on the protection of personal data and the entrenchment of the right to be forgotten.</p> <p>In addition, there is a weakness in the legal treatment of this right by the countries which issued these laws. Meaning that there is no direct and clear treatment in the texts of these laws which a clear and well-defined theory can be based upon whose provisions can be adhered to by all those involved in dealing with personal data and behavior through on the internet.</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Mustafa Khaled Copyright (c) 2020 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine 2020-07-15 2020-07-15 2 2 202 221 10.26735/YVUN6599 Forensic Identification of Air Freshener Components from the Toxicological Samples by GC-MS : A Case Report <p>Indoor air fresheners are commonly used to deodorize rooms and cars. A case of air freshener intoxication by oral ingestion was forwarded to the forensic laboratory to determine the components and cause of death. <br />The presumptive tests were conducted for organo-phosphorus and organo-chloro compounds, formaldehyde, carbolic acid, drugs and aromatic compounds. Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS) was used as a confirmatory test for all these compounds. Presence of toxic substances like dichlorvos (2,2 di-chlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate), phenol, formaldehyde, naphthalene was confirmed in the air freshener that led to the person’s death. Laboratory analysis also confirmed the presence of alprazolam in the viscera as per case history. <br />The methodology used can be utilized as a reference for TLC and GC-MS based analysis of such cases</p> Puja Mukharjee Bhuvnesh Yadav Prem P. Singh Copyright (c) 2020 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine 2020-11-03 2020-11-03 2 2 177 182 10.26735/UEDU6910 Damaging Similarities in Highly Skilled Signature Simulations - Their Detection and Authorship <p>Questioned document examination is a highly specialized and challenging field of study, because of the variety and complexity of problems that are referred to document examiners. Detection and identification of practiced simulated forgeries is an area of forensic science which requires the professional skill, capability and acumen of an examiner, every time he (or she) is called upon to examine and report a case of this nature. This is because firstly, the practiced simulations bear a striking semblance to the copied model and usually contains the handwriting features of the writers, the real person as well as the forger, though in varying degrees.Secondly, the skilled forger rarely leaves his own imprint in the forgery he committed. Most authorities on the subject have advised that the identification of authorship, in such cases, may be considered as an exception rather than the rule. Besides discussing and reviewing the work done in this regard, the authors have also presented and illustrated an intricate case study where the authorship of simulated signatures could be associated with the known handwriting of the suspected forger</p> Mahesh C. Joshi Mohinder Singh Trilochan Joshi Copyright (c) 2020 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine 2020-11-05 2020-11-05 2 2 189 200 10.26735/LULS7824 Anachronism in Fonts and Relative Dating of Computer Printed Documents: A Case Report <p>In the field of forensic document examination, identification of fonts and their dates of release may provide a lead as to the relative age of computer printouts. Hence, fonts in a printout can be used as a means of evaluation of an anachronism or chronological inconsistency. Therefore, an anachronism betrays the fabricated nature of the questioned documents. <br />In the present case study, the traditional methodology of typescript matching coupled with an off-line digital tool were used in identifying pre-dated documents and disproving the genuineness of the documents in question. <br />The procedure adopted for differentiation, identification and confirmation of font(s) and years of release of fonts for commercial use is discussed.<br />Hence, in this case report it was safely concluded that the disputed agreement for sale could have been prepared on a later date than the purported date of execution i.e.1993 for the reason that the use of the “Comic Sans MS” font is an anachronism.</p> Loganathan Lingan Copyright (c) 2020 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine 2020-09-07 2020-09-07 2 2 183 188 10.26735/QZJS3127 Suicidal Cut-throat Fatalities: A Case Report from the Kingdom of Bahrain <table width="907"> <tbody> <tr> <td width="708"> <p>Using a sharp tool by an individual to cause a severe cut-throat injury is considered an unusual method for suicide. Investigating such suicidal cases is challenging, as no witness is available only the crime scene findings, the autopsy finding and the history of the victim. In this case report, we demonstrate a rare suicidal case received by the directorate of forensic science evidence in the Kingdom of Bahrain.</p> <p>A 39-year-old male was found with a neck laceration in his house, a small knife was found near his body, autopsy showed a cut-throat injury almost completely encircling the neck. Multiple superficial wounds were found in the proximity and parallel to the large incised wound in the front and back of the neck suggesting that they were hesitation marks. A stab wound was found directly medial to the left nipple. The final report was based on death scene investigation, autopsy findings and forensic laboratory results concluding that the death was suicidal in nature.</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Mohammed Fouda Aqeela Abuidrees Copyright (c) 2020 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine 2020-09-07 2020-09-07 2 2 170 176 10.26735/WGBV2621 Molecular Depiction of Thirteen Indian Toxic Plants with ITS Markers <table width="907"> <tbody> <tr> <td width="708"> <p>Plant identification is an overwhelming task due to different biological attributes and great diversity in plant species. In the absence of physical markers, molecular techniques have become useful for the identification of species of origin of medicinal plant seeds, pastes, and formulations of suspected plants.</p> <p>The ITS region of nuclear rRNA was amplified from thirteen different toxic plant species by using universal primer ITS 1 &amp; 4. Nucleotide sequences of all selected plants were submitted in NCBI and accession numbers were acquired.</p> <p>The results of this study give accurate identification of thirteen plant species and proved the ITS region of 18s-26s nuclear ribosome to be an important tool for phylogenetic analysis and species identification of plants. The sequence was aligned with top matched reference sequence and presented in Clustal Omega software for making a phylogenetic neighbour tree.</p> <p>The significance of these findings is paramount in forensic toxicology scenarios especially when fragmentary plant material is found in the stomach/intestine and its morphological identification becomes impossible. In these circumstances, the PCR based molecular technique surely plays a significant role in solving complicated forensic cases.</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Kiran Kumari Saurabh Bhargava Rajvinder Singh Copyright (c) 2020 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine 2020-09-07 2020-09-07 2 2 159 169 10.26735/YGUY5295 Validation of Half-Reaction Volumes of the Promega PowerPlex® Forensic Amplification Kits (PowerPlex® 18D Systems, PowerPlex ® 21System, PowerPlex® Fusion System and PowerPlex® Y23 System) in STR Analysis <p>DNA amplification is known to be the most expensive step during forensic DNA analysis. This study evaluated the half-reaction amplification protocol (12.5 µL PCR product) using DNA amplification kits from Promega PowerPlex® (PowerPlex® 18D System, PowerPlex ®21System, PowerPlex® Fusion System and PowerPlex® Y23 System), which might aid in reducing sample analysis cost by half and allow the analysis of more samples. <br />A sensitivity study (15 samples) along with testing of various blood stain samples (n=100) that were submitted to the Medico-Legal Directorate laboratory for DNA testing was accomplished to compare the DNA profiles resulting from half-reaction volume procedure to those with full-reaction volume procedure, using three differed methods along with standard protocol to evaluate the effect of half reaction volume with some variables. <br />Results demonstrated the use of half-reaction amplification protocol preceded by washing step for all aforementioned DNA amplification kits gave a robust and reliable amplification result that aid to increase the number of samples analyzed and decreased the test cost for each kit without compromising the quality of 3DNA profiles obtained.</p> Hanan K. Mahmood Nadia F. Salman Dhurgham H. Hasan Khaleefah M. Salih Maryam A. Sadiq Basma T. Mohammad Maryam K. Mohammed Sarwa M. Nahi Sara S. Baqir Copyright (c) 2020 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine 2020-11-05 2020-11-05 2 2 152 158 10.26735/QFSI2426 The Magnitude, Clinical Presentation and Consequences of Patients with Burn Injuries Admitted to Tertiary Care Hospital, Kurunegala, Sri Lanka: A Prospective Analysis <p>This prospective analysis is based on clinical forensic examinations and clinical case records of the victims who sustained burns and were admitted during a one-year period since 2017. <br />Of the 90 patients (34 children and 56 adults), 54 % were male with ages ranging from 1 month to 80 years. Males below the age of 20 years (48 %) were highly vulnerable. Education status revealed that most of the patients have an education level below O/L representing 52 % (Ordinary Level/ O/L is similar to the General Certificate of Secondary Education/ GCSE in Cambridge Education System in United Kingdom) and the majority were married (52%). Scalds were seen in 52 %, while flame burns in 28 % cases. Most of the incidents had taken place at home (92%). Burn injuries were most frequently observed on upper extremities (47 %) and the majority were of first degree in nature. Furthermore, this study revealed that 57 % recovered without any complications, while 34 % resulted in scarring or disfigurement. <br />It was highlighted that children are the most vulnerable to in sustaining burns, especially with hot water in domestic settings. The study recommends increasing awareness among parents/guardians regarding safe handling of hot water to minimize such incidents.</p> Udukubhura D. G. Dissanayaka Amal N. Vadysinghe Yapa M. G. I. Banda Thenuwara H. I. Gayathree Copyright (c) 2020 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine 2020-10-29 2020-10-29 2 2 141 151 10.26735/GJME7901 Succession of Dipteran Fly Maggots on Poisoned Pig Cadavers at Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria <table width="907"> <tbody> <tr> <td width="708"> <p>Dipteran maggots found on a cadaver are used to estimate its time of death but the time may be incorrect if death occurred due to ingestion of poison. Decomposition of a zinc phosphide intoxicated and strangulated pigs (Sus scrofa Linn.) were evaluated in this study.</p> <p>They were deposited in a forest during the rainy season and repeated during the dry season at Awka, Nigeria. Decomposition duration and stages of decay of the pig cadavers were recorded. Maggots found on the cadavers were collected, reared to adulthood and were identified. Similar maggot samples were assessed for residues of zinc and phosphorus with an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer.</p> <p>Both pig cadavers completely decomposed within 10 and 14 days during the rainy and dry seasons, respectively. Appearance and emergence of three dipteran maggot families were observed on the cadavers in a successional pattern. Zinc and phosphorus residues were detected in the maggots from the poisoned cadavers while they were not detected in the maggots from the strangled cadavers.</p> <p>The three dipteran maggot families are recommended as a valuable tool in forensic entomology for the estimation of elapsed time of a questionable death and the dipteran bodies would also be useful for toxicological analysis.</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Maduamaka C. Abajue Sylvanus C. Ewuim Cosmas A. Uhuo Copyright (c) 2020 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine 2020-11-03 2020-11-03 2 2 140 152 10.26735/VLTV5183 A Novel Approach for Forensic Differentiation of Grass Stains Using ATR FT-IR Spectroscopy and Chemometrics <p>Grass evidence often encountered at the crime scene, helps in establishing the primary as well as secondary crime scenes. Due to the limited quantity and intricate nature of samples, there is a need for fast, sensitive and reliable techniques for the effective analysis of this vital evidence. In the current study, an attempt is made to study the feasibility of ATR FT-IR in combination with chemometric tools for chemical characterization and species differentiation of grass stains. <br />Ten different grass species belonging to three subfamilies, Panicoideae, Chlorodoidae, and Bambusoideae, were collected and analyzed by using the ATR FT-IR spectroscopy combined with the PLSR chemometric tool. <br />Results showed a clear difference between samples of Panicoideae, Chlorodoidae, and Bambusoideae subfamilies, and between species of each subfamily. To analyse the performance of the classification model, a set of 10 unknown/blind samples (unknown to the analyst) were randomly selected from the training dataset and all unknown/blind samples were accurately assigned in their corresponding group. <br />ATR FT-IR spectroscopy requires minimal sample preparation and can be successfully used as an eco-friendly, non-destructive, and reliable alternative to other existing methods.</p> Jaskirandeep K. Jossan Sweety Sharma Priyanka Jindal Rajinder Singh Copyright (c) 2020 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine 2020-11-05 2020-11-05 2 2 128 139 10.26735/QMFZ6158 Potential and Accuracy of Hand Length and Hand Breadth in Sex Determination: An Insight into Hausa Population of Nigeria <p>The identification of an individual in mass disasters and traffic accidents is a fundamental goal in forensic investigations. However, it is suggested that every population needs anthropological reference data. The objectives of this study were to determine the potential and accuracy of hand length and hand breadth in sex determination among the Hausa population of Nigeria. <br />Random sampling was employed to select 204 male and 194 female subjects aged 18-30 years. Hand length and hand breadth were measured using standard protocols. Two-sample t-test, binary logistic regression, receiver operating characteristics curve, and Youden’s index were used for determining sex using hand dimensions. Posterior probability and likelihood ratio were used to determine the favor odds of each category of hand dimension in sex discrimination.<br />A significant sexual dimorphism was observed in hand length and hand breadth with higher mean values in males. The variance of sex explained by hand parameters ranges from 38.50/51.35% (lower/upper limits) to 52.98/70.66%, which were exhibited by right hand length and left hand breadth respectively. The overall prediction and percentage accuracy of sex discrimination ranges between 80.40 to 86.70 % that were exhibited by right hand length and handbreadth respectively. We observed that left hand breadth exhibited higher Younden’s index with an area under curve (AUC) ranging from 91.60% to 96.05%. We found that hand length of &gt; 189.99 mm was indicative of male origin and hand breadth of &gt; 79.99 mm was indicative of male origin. <br /><br /></p> Magaji G. Taura Lawan H. Adamu Abdullahi Y. Asuku Kabiru B. Umar Musa Abubakar Isyaku I. Kibiya Abdulrashid Sunusi Copyright (c) 2020 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine 2020-09-07 2020-09-07 2 2 118 127 10.26735/VMOY2714 Description of Rare Genetic Variants Discovered with Promega PowerPlex® Forensic Amplification Kits during STR analysis of Routine Paternity and Kinship Cases <p>Short Tandem Repeats (STR) have been widely used to create a discriminating DNA profile during the forensic investigation of a crime. The Paternity and Kinship Division at Medico-legal Directorate (MLD)/ Baghdad, provides a DNA fingerprinting service for paternity and kinship requests from different courts of law and police departments from across the country. Several rare variants were observed during DNA analysis such as rare off-ladder alleles, tri-allelic pattern as well as allele dropout. Variants that have been transmitted among family members were investigated in this study.<br />During the period between 2008 to 2019, 38309 samples have been analyzed in the Paternity and Kinship Laboratories for DNA profiling to resolve the referred cases. DNA profiles found to have unusual STR patterns (off-ladder, tri-allelic pattern, inter-loci variable were analyzed and documented).<br />A total of 17 variants were observed which were as shared among family members. Rare off-ladder alleles (9 cases + inter-loci variant 2 cases), as well as 6 cases of tri-allelic patterns were recorded. <br />The presence of each type of these variants among family members proves that these variations are of genetic origin. They also represent rare genetic variants specific to the Iraqi populations that could be used for the establishment of a new Iraqi DNA database, which might be useful for genealogical studies as well as in terms of resolving familial, social, and moral disputes.</p> Hanan K. Mahmood Nadia F. Salman Dhurgham H. Hasan Khalifah M. Salih Majeed A. Sabbah Aamera J. Alnima Copyright (c) 2020 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine 2020-09-07 2020-09-07 2 2 111 117 10.26735/PISP6332 Frequency of Mamelons in Relation to Age, Gender and Occlusion among the Saudi Population <table width="907"> <tbody> <tr> <td width="708"> <p>This observational study aimed to determine the prevalence and identify the presence of mamelons while simultaneously correlating the age, gender, and bite relationship of the subjects.</p> <p>Total sample size included 518 patients, both males and females. Study participants were selected by systematic random sampling using the website. Clinical examination as well as the presence of mamelons on each jaw and the relationship of anterior teeth such as open bite, functional contact, or not were screened by trained personnel performed by using a mouth mirror, latex gloves, a dental probe, and a dental chair light.</p> <p>256 (49.4%) males and 262 (50.5%) females participated in this study. It was observed that the presence of mamelons was more frequent among females (84.7%) rather than males (79.3%). During the first decade of life, the percentage of mamelons is higher, irrespective of gender. However, the frequency and percentage of mamelons start to decrease with age. Mamelons are more prevalent in an open bite occlusion (90.0%) followed by a non-functional occlusion, i.e., 81.7% (edge to edge relation) and then a functional occlusion, i.e., 75.5%.</p> <p>Persistence of mamelons in either gender is higher up to the age of 25 years, afterward mamelons dramatically reduce. Additionally, mamelons appear more in maxillary incisors than mandible incisors.</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Munther Alalowi Nouf Al-Jhany Copyright (c) 2020 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine 2020-09-07 2020-09-07 2 2 106 110 10.26735/VGLP5383 Life after Death, Interpreting the Enigmas: A Forensic Review <p>The phenomena of Post-Mortem changes have been a topic that has been extensively studied for ages and scientists and researchers have devised different methodologies to interpret Post-Mortem Interval (PMI). The study of Post-Mortem changes is important as they can help an investigator to determine the time since death &amp; the cause of death. The aim of this review is to discuss the process of decomposition and their various stages, the contributing factors that affect decomposition and understand the various classes of organisms ranging from Flies to Vertebrate Scavengers that can help estimate the time since death and the degree of decomposition. Moreover, the review talks about methods for estimation of Post-Mortem Interval and related complications. This detailed review is all about the phenomena’s that are involved after death and its contributing factors and can be utilized as a reference for future studies. This article also seeks to determine how efficient is it to estimate the PMI and what are its limitations.</p> Prashant Singh Nandini Gupta Ravi Rathi Copyright (c) 2 2 Juvenile Terrorism in India <p><em>Objectives</em>: Perpetrators of terrorist offence often tend to be young children under the age of 18years. They are found engaged in a terrorist activity in different capacity. Terrorist groups often involve such children directly into terrorist act. Available literature has shown that children are more vulnerable than adults in the violent terrorist act owing to the lack of maturity and judgmental capacity. They are also found to have low level of guilt due to under arousal of autonomic nervous system activity. <em>Methods</em> : In the present study 30 juvenile terrorist were brought to Forensic Science Laboratory, Bangalore from different parts of the country i.e Maharashtra, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. They were subjected to polygraph examination to measure changes in physiological parameters related to crime under investigation. <em>Results and Conclusion</em> : Factors such as the age, education, family background, socio economic status, addictions were found to be having influence on the lower arousal of autonomic nervous system. The need of the hour is to identify the causes of juvenile terrorism and to create a reformative environment for the adolescent who conflicts with the law. In the present study, an attempt has made to explore psycho physiological factors underlying juvenile terrorism.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: <em>Forensic Psychology, Psychophysiology, Juvenile terrorist, , Polygraph,&nbsp; ANS , </em></strong></p> Yaseen MG Copyright (c) 2 2