Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine <p style="text-align: justify;">The Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences &amp; Forensic Medicine (AJFSFM) is an open access (CC BY-NC), peer-reviewed, and free of charge journal dedicated to the development and application of forensic science and forensic medical knowledge and research for the purpose of law and justice across the globe. The AJFSFM is an official publication (ISSN 1658-6786) of the Arab Society for Forensic Sciences and Forensic Medicine (ASFSFM) and is published biannually by Naif Arab University for Security Sciences (NAUSS), Riyadh – Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.</p> Naif Arab University for Security Sciences en-US Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine 1658-6786 <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;You must read and accept the copyright terms and conditions(<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">click here for&nbsp;copyright terms</a>).</p> Developing the academic programs in forensic sciences: a consistent need to achieve professionalism in forensic work and to serve the criminal justice <p>Due to the rapid and global development on the nature of the crime in the past two decades, and the criminal justice systems need for graduates who work with good knowledge under standard professional practices, it is essential to keep pace with the development of education and training systems in the field of criminal justice and forensic sciences. This development should involve the academic programs, the curricula, the education methods and facilities, and the subsequent evaluation processes. Moreover, it should include improving the techniques and practices used in the crime scene and forensic laboratory investigations. In general, the development should focus on promoting the scientific knowledge, skills, abilities, and academic qualifications of students majoring in forensic science.</p> <p>This review is based on an analysis of data from the most recent publications on the development of academic educational programs in forensic sciences. Therefore, it aims to provide Arab academic institutions with basic ideas helping in design or expand these programs as an expression of the needs and requirements of the forensic science community. It also, indirectly, invites graduated students from academic programs in forensic sciences to evaluate their educational programs in forensic sciences.</p> <p>This review is considered a message to the Arab academic and educational institutions that offer or seek to establish forensic science programs. In addition, it provides a consultancy for individuals beginning to major in forensic science or pursuing a career in this branch of sciences.</p> Jihad Al-Qudsi Copyright (c) 2 2 An autopsy based case report on homicidal head injury <p><em>Head injury occurs as a result of trauma to the scalp, skull/ brain. It may be closed where there is no cut to the skin or penetrating (skin/bone of the skull is broken). India has an unenviable distinction in having highest rate of head injury in the world. More than 100,000 lives are lost every year with over one million suffering from serious head injuries. Sub-arachnoid haemorrhage is&nbsp; most common in Traumatic Brain Injury</em>.</p> rohini Copyright (c) 2 2 PLANT WAX – A REMARKABLE GEOMARKER IN SOIL FORENSICS AND TRACE EVIDENCE ANALYSIS <p>Plant waxes or commonly known as Cuticular waxes are the type of wax present on the upper cuticular surfaces of the plant leaves and many a times on stems also. The soil, in which the plant grows, carries same hydrocarbon profile as established by earlier studies. The reason behind the presence of similar hydrocarbon profile is the synthesis and decomposition of vegetation in that soil. Thus, this relationship can be used to link the plant or better to be called as botanical evidence with the crime, the victim, the suspect and the crime scene. In the present study, seven garden plants have been used along with the soils in which they were growing. The plant leaf wax and the wax from soil were extracted using a non-polar solvent i.e. n-hexane and the extracted fatty acids were then derivatized into its methyl ester using trifluoro bromine. The derivatized fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) from plant and soil were then analysed by gas chromatography mass spectroscopy and compared. The hydrocarbons from plants matched with that of soil thus conforming for the presence of similar hydrocarbons. Thus the waxes can be considered as a Geomarker or as trace evidence in forensic sciences.</p> Shalvi Agrawal Copyright (c) 2 2 المشاركة فى المؤتمر أثر استخدام تطبيقات الذكاء الاصطناعي في الكشف عن الأدلة الجنائية وانعكاساتها على مكافحة الجرائم السيبرانية في المجتمعات العربية – دراسة مقارنة <p>dr magdy eldagher</p> مجدى الداغر Copyright (c) 2 2 Evaluation of forensic genetic parameters of 24 STR loci and Y indel in a southern Saudi population sample using the GlobalFiler™ amplification kit <p>Native Saudi Arabian populations are non-uniformly distributed, and historically organized into geographically differentiated patrilineal descent groups or tribes. Autosomal Short-tandem repeats (STRs) genotyping has been widely utilized in forensic identity investigations and kinship analysis to assist in the interpretation of DNA-based forensic evidences and in the construction of DNA databases. Therefore, we investigated the genetic structure in 154 buccal swabs samples collected from unrelated healthy Saudi subjects within three generations from the southern Saudi regions using GlobalFiler™ PCR Amplification kit. Intrapopulation genetic diversity, Forensic parameters (Ho, He, PD, PM, PE, PIC and TPI) as well as Interpopulation diversity analysis were performed. Our results showed a total of 216 alleles ranging from 4 to 36 repeat units. SE33 locus was the most polymorphic with 31 alleles, and TPOX locus was the least with 6 alleles. For the present studied population, the PIC, PE, TPI, Ho and He varied from 0.56116 (TPOX) to 0.94393 (SE33), 0.26638 (TPOX) to 0.83859 (SE33), 1.1875 (TPOX) to 6.33333 (SE33), 0.57894 (TPOX) to 0.92105 (SE33) and 0.6169 (TPOX) to 0.952 (SE33), respectively. The highest PM and PD were observed for D22S1045 (0.223944) and SE33 (0.98935), respectively. The combined PD and combined PM were 99.99999999% and 3.19021E-25, respectively. Phylogenetic parameters showed that the southern Saudi population had the closest genetic relationship with the Saudi, Emirati, Kuwaiti, and Bahraini population. The current study revealed that GlobalFiler™ PCR Amplification kit would support the forensic application and forensic casework in the Southern Saudi population.</p> Safia Messaoudi Copyright (c) 2 2 The Role of DNA in Shaping the Conviction of the Criminal Judge in Algerian Legislation <p><em>The formation of the personal conviction of the criminal court judge on which the judicial judgment is based has become closely linked to the results of modern scientific evidence. Among the most important of these is DNA profiling, which has been used in many areas of life, especially in the field of criminal evidence.</em></p> <p><em>This paper addresses DNA profiling in terms of the extent to which it is considered a scientific evidence that forms the conviction of the criminal court judge in building his judgements and how the Algerian legislator has dealt with this issue. This is done by explaining the concept of DNA profiling, its importance and advantages, and by studying the evidentiary value and the persuasive power of DNA profiling to convince the criminal court judge. The paper also looks into the extent of its legality in the Algerian legislation, which addressed it</em> in the Penal Code and the Code of Criminal Procedure, and Law No. 16-03 of June 19, 2016, relating to the use of DNA in judicial procedures and the identification of persons. This requires a more accurate and detailed explanation and sufficient clarification.</p> <p>&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; DNA profiling surpasses much of the scientific evidence, given its advantages. Despite the fact that DNA sampling is considered to be an infringement of personal rights and freedoms, most sets of legislation have called for the adoption of it, similar to the Algerian legislator, which did not explicitly provide a legal text for this technology until recently through Law 16-03.&nbsp;</p> Mohammed Zenati Ahmed Benini Copyright (c) 2 2 10.26735/ETLX8554 An overview of criminal evidence and its modern technologies <p>This study addresses the role of the most important modern scientific methods in the extraction of forensic evidence and criminal evidence. This is because from the moment a crime is committed, proof of the crime is the focus in the search for its perpetrator and the time required to arrest the perpetrator or prove the crime and punish him.&nbsp; The study discussed the role of these methods in increasing reassurance and a sense of security in society and achieving justice. Moreover, it stressed the importance of justice departments’ use of any modern technology that may contribute to this process. It also reviewed the criminal evidence system, relevant concepts, ways to develop it, as well as the role of scientific evidence and modern technologies in criminal evidence. It has become clear that along with the development of crime and its types, it is now imperative to develop forensic sciences to uncover the facts of various cases. Furthermore, it has also become clear that the use of scientific methods is caught between two issues: the first is the extent to which they infringe upon the rights and fundamental freedoms of the accused, and the second is the definitive conclusions that infringe upon these rights and freedoms. These rights and fundamental freedoms must not be sacrificed, except to the extent to which the conclusions of these methods are definitive and decisive as proof. It is also now clear that evidence resulting from the use of modern scientific methods is subject to the principle</p> Mahmoud Amer Copyright (c) 2 2 10.26735/FEQT1387 Recent trends in crime prevention <p>The globalization of crime and the emergence of new forms of it have increased the spread of violence and threats towards individuals and societies. It has become imperative to follow modern trends in crime prevention, as they are proactive, participatory, and stimulate the role of the individual and the community. For this reason, the paper aims to show the latest approaches and practices in the prevention of delinquency and crime. Based on an analytical methodology, this paper provides an examination of the new trends in crime, to analyze modern initiatives, practices, and strategies in its prevention. The Kyoto Conference (March 2021) is a theoretical entry point for monitoring global trends in crime prevention. The results of the analysis show that prevention through social development, situational prevention, and community-based prevention remain the most used and effective approaches. The results also show that prevention based on the role of the city and prevention based on regional and international coordination are the latest trends in modern practices. This paper will also discuss the most important tools in following up on prevention programs, models for comprehensive strategies, and a brief analysis of the role of forensic sciences in developing modern prevention trends. The paper recommends to make social development programs a top priority, by involving the psychological factors and all the components of the local community and civil society, to create an Arab observatory for crime, violence and delinquency, founding a platform for best practices, and creating an Arab Center for Youth Empowerment.&nbsp;</p> Slim Masmoudi Copyright (c) 2 2 Detection of Trace Evidences of Forensic Interest in Latent Fingerprints on Various Surfaces using Attenuated Total Reflection-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy <p>The attenuated total reflection-fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy has been demonstrated to detect various drugs of abuse with adulterant, gunshot residue and traces of explosive in unprocessed latent fingerprints lifted by transparent tape. Unprocessed fingerprints are developed on porous, semi-porous and nonporous substrates. Three drugs of abuse (atropine, barbiturate, and caffeine), one non-controlled substance with similar appearance that can be used for adulteration of drugs of abuse i.e. starch, gun powder and charcoal are used to simulate fingerprints. This approach makes it possible to find if a suspect has touched any of these substances from the fingerprints alone as it is not possible by looking at morphology alone. Due to non-destructive nature of ATR-FTIR, fingerprints can be utilized for further investigation. Acquired spectra of standard samples are compared to those of fingerprint residue from each type of substrates and the spectra of transparent tape is substracted from the spectra of fingerprint residues. This approach of examining fingerprints for trace evidences can immensly impact forensic science as fingerprints are universal in nature and most commonly found at crime scenes. However, it is difficult to locate these substances in the fingerprint beneath the lifting tape in order to obtain a ATR-FTIR spectrum. &nbsp;</p> Manika Astha Pandey Copyright (c) 2 2 The Genetic profile evaluation of the human cell lines treated with drugs using Forensic DNA fingerprinting markers. <p>Cell line authentication using Short tandem repeats (STRs) is necessary to ensure the integrity of the cell for its continuous culture and address the misidentification and cross contamination issues. This study investigates the changes in the genetic profile of MCF-7 and HepG2 cell lines caused by the methanolic leaf extract of Anastatica hierochuntica (AH) using Human Identification based STR markers. MCF-7 and HepG2 cell lines were treated with various concentrations of AH extracts for three different time periods. The DNA of the treated and control cells were extracted using QIAamp® DNA Micro Kit and quantified using Quantifiler Duo DNA Quantification Kit and amplified using AmpFlSTR Identifiler plus PCR Amplification Kit. The concentration of the DNA extracted from control and both MCF-7 and HepG2 cell lines treated with AH extract at 300 to 2400 µg/ml for 24hr and 150 to 2400 µg/ml for 48, 72hrs were statistically significant (p&lt;0.05). Microsatellite instability (MSI), Loss of Heterozygosity (LOH), insertion/deletions changes in STRs profile were observed in treated cell lines at 1200 and 2400µg/ml in MCF-7 cells for 48, 72hrs and HepG2 cells for 24, 48,72hrs. We conclude that the highest concentration of AH has affected the genotype of the cell lines leading to misidentification. Therefore, cell line authentication by forensic DNA analysis techniques plays a decisive role for cells tested high concentration of chemical compounds and also raise an insight to the forensic investigator about these changes in STR genotype of victim/suspect been under chemotherapeutic treatment for longer period.</p> Safia Messaoudi Saranya RameshBabu Mohammed Syed Ali Abrar Alsaleh Anuradha Venkatraman Copyright (c) 2 2 Occupational Fire Safety in India: A Preliminary Study on Current Trends and Future Implications <p>Injuries and deaths related to heat and accidental fires are witnessed annually with most accidental fires in the world being structural fires. These fires when seen at a workplace result in widespread destruction and damage leading to loss in productivity of the business and nation. Small businesses may find it difficult to recover from such blazing disasters and hence, fire risk evaluation and steps for mitigation are absolutely necessary. The survey was designed to elicit the prevalence of fire safety regulations at Indian workplaces across four categories viz. Educational institutions, private offices, municipal government workplaces and entrepreneurial spaces. The practice of regular service and maintenance of fire safety devices was also studied. The research helped to understand the current status of occupational fire safety practices in India and gain insight into lacunae for non-compliance. This preliminary study found that compliance of workplace fire safety norms varied with the type of industry. Hence, suggestions for a more extensive industry based approach should be researched for better insight into this finding. The relationship between fire safety training and employee confidence was also studied.</p> Glorita Fernandes Copyright (c) 2 2 Virtopsy Controversies & Knowledge Gaps in the Middle-East and the Role of Virtopsy during the Present COVID-19 Pandemic <p>Despite the use of postmortem imaging being as old as the field of radiology itself, it has been given far less attention than its classical counterpart and with the advancement of other modalities such as cts and MRIs the term virtual autopsy was introduced fairly recently giving further potential to achieve new things in the field of forensic medicine. The covid19 pandemic has given virtopsies a new opportunity to develop and potentially make significant breakthroughs in studying this new pandemic from multiple perspectives. With the global effort to establish a solid understanding of the virus more people are getting virtopsies and more studies are being published globally in this topic. Yet despite all the near limitless potential virtopsies and post mortem imaging has to offer very few studies have been published in this topic in the middle east and so we will discuss in this project the gaps in the current literature in the middle east as well as any development in regard to how the covid-19 impacted the direction in which post mortem imaging can be used. <strong><em>Methodology:</em></strong> In identifying sources for this literature review we used a single database for our search PubMed. The search was conducted on the 1st of October 2020. The search strategy for PubMed was using specific search terms and using search commands to narrow down our search to the most related topics. And we selected the search terms: Middle East, Radiology, Imaging, Forensic, post mortem, Covid-19.&nbsp;</p> MOHAMMAD ALQAHTANI Copyright (c) 2 2 The Study of Finger Print Pattern in Different Blood Groups Among Indian Population <p><strong>Background</strong>: Among the various comparative data techniques, establishing identification through fingerprints is documented and regarded as the utmost contribution to the criminal investigation. Through its significant features, the science of fingerprint provides exceptional service in solving crimes and it is also useful in other fields where establishing identification is of major importance.</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>This study aimed to establish a likely correlation between fingerprint pattern and the ABO blood group.</p> <h2>Methods: The present cross-sectional study was carried out on 500 subjects of Indian origin aged above 18 years, who were selected randomly using a convenience sampling technique.</h2> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Fingerprint pattern analysis showed that loops were the most common pattern in the study amounting to 54% followed by whorls registering 39% and arches were present in a smaller percentage (7%) in the study group. The incidence of loops and whorls was maximum in the O blood group and arches were more common with blood group B.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The fingerprint pattern and ABO blood group showed a significant correlation.&nbsp; The distribution of the different pattern of fingerprints in individual finger also showed some peculiarities concerning the ABO blood group.</p> Smitha Rani Balaraj BM Copyright (c) 2 2 Study on sex difference in fingerprint ridge density of Northern India population <p>Sex determination can be a deciding lead in forensic investigations. It can give the investigation a direction as well as can help in narrowing the suspect list. The use of fingerprint ridge density for sex determination is still in its infancy stages, however, previous studies suggest that there is a significant difference among genders in terms of fingerprint ridge density. In the present study, an attempt has been made to study the relationship between ridge density and the sex of subjects. Fingerprints of all fingers from 75 males and 75 females of the Punjabi population of Northern India were collected and their ridge density was studied. Mean ridge density for male subjects was found to be in the range of 11.21 in the left thumb to 11.85 in the left middle finger. On the other hand, the mean ridge density for females ranged between 15.63 in the right thumb to 16.88 in the left ring finger. Population density for fingerprint ridge density was also calculated for each finger. It can be concluded that male fingerprints are more likely to have a ridge density of 10-14 ridges/25mm<sup>2</sup> in contrast to female fingerprints which are more likely to have a ridge density of 14-18 ridges/25mm<sup>2</sup>.</p> Praveen Kumar Yadav Copyright (c) 2 2 Role of dental evidence in forensic investigation – case studies <p>Dental evidence includes broken teeth, bitemarks, artificial dental accessories, and palatal rugae marks. Bitemarks are often the result of violence during the crime scene, which might result from an assault by the assailant and defense by the victim. Dental accessories such as dentures and artificial crowns are often left at the crime scene as a result of struggle. Such evidence plays a crucial role in identifying victims and linking the suspect with the crime scene due to their uniqueness and permanence. In this paper, we have discussed three case studies where dental evidence has proved to be crucial in solving the murder case.</p> Praveen Kumar Yadav Copyright (c) 2 2 Hepatorenal toxicity of Diclofenac and Ciprofloxacin in male albino rat <p>The toxic effect of diclofenac (DCF) sodium and Ciprofloxacin (CIP) on gene expression of cytochrome oxidase P450 (CYPs) and the histology of liver and kidney of male albino rat has been evaluated in this study. Thirty-five adult male albino rats were divided into 7 groups of 5 individuals each (A, B, C, D, E, F and G) and were treated intravenously with drugs for 21 consecutive days. Group A served as the control while B and C were treated with 5.3, 10.6 mg/kg body weight (bw) DCF sodium and groups D and E were treated with 40 and 80 mg/kg bw CIP, respectively. Groups F and G were treated with a mixture of the low and the high doses of both drugs, respectively. Both drugs significantly downregulated the mRNA expression of CYP1a2, CYP3a4 and CYP2c9. They caused hepatorenal histological alterations. In the liver, massive fibrosis, necrosis, inflammatory cell infiltration with hemorrhages and hydrophilic degeneration have been observed. A massive tissue injury with glomerular and tubular damages due to sever necrosis, degeneration of concomitant inflammatory cells and blood vessels congestion have been shown in renal tissues. Although DCF and CIP are still used as therapeutic drugs, their use should be limited as their chronic administration induces a toxic effect on human health.</p> Sayed Amer Copyright (c) 2 2 عربي <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Background:</strong></p> <p>Syria has been witnessing an armed conflict for more than seven years, leaving daily human victims with burned bodies and bodies’ remains that need to be recognize by forensic experts. There is a significant role for forensic dentistry in the process of recognition, and mandible has more bone hardness, permanence and variation in its shape according to gender.</p> <p><strong>Objectives:</strong></p> <p>To evaluate sexual differences in some measurements of mandibular bone and to assess the accuracy of these measurements in sex determination.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;100 digital panoramic radiographs (50 males and 50 females) were included in this study، and the parameters (maximum ramus breadth, condylar height, coronoid height, minimum ramus breadth) were analyzed for differences between males and females.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong><strong>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </strong></p> <p>There were statistically significant differences between males and females in the parameters (maximum ramus breadth, condylar height, coronoid height), but there were not such statistically significant differences in the parameters (minimum ramus breadth). This study showed that the accuracy of sex prediction based on these parameters was 76%.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong></p> <p>This study showed that some of the standard parameters on mandible in Syrian society can carry an important indication in sex determination process.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> forensic dentistry, mandible, sex determination.</p> عربي عربي عربي عربي Copyright (c) 2 2 Vivo Extraction and Forensic Profiling of Toxic Plant Seeds Constituents via Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry <p><strong>&nbsp;Plants are an outline of human society. Although, not all the chemical components present in the plant have equally important for human body. Sometimes, these compounds accumulate in human body tissues that produce highly toxic elements and can sometimes cause death. Forensic experts need to have a good knowledge of these phytochemicals while performing analysis for interpreting in toxicology cases. The present study has devised a new extraction protocol for extract the bio-active components of toxic plant seeds from mice viscera. The calculated LD<sub>50</sub>doses of toxic seeds extracts of <em>Jatropha curcus, Datura inoxia, Thevetia neriifolia, Ricinus communis</em>, and <em>Abrus precatorius</em> were given to the mice. A new extraction method was developed to the extracts of the bioactive components after slightly modifying from the previously practiced Ammonium Sulfate method. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry aid in the conclusive identification of constituents extracted from biological material. Most of the identified compounds were found in metabolites forms of the phyto-constituents. This new and modified extraction procedure created useful results that helped in generating a database of many toxic plant seed constituents and metabolites for its forensic utility.</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> DR KIRAN MALIK Copyright (c) 2 2 Estimation of an individual stature using anthropometric foot, outlines and footprints measurements in adult Saudi population <p><strong>Background:</strong> Identification of an individual is one of the main challenges to forensic investigators especially from dismembered and mutilated body parts. To narrow down the pool of possible suspects in forensic investigation process; footprints and foot outline found at the crime scenes are used to facilitate estimation of stature. <strong>Objectives:</strong> the current study aimed to estimate the individual stature using anthropometric foot, foot outlines and footprints measurements in a Saudi Arabian population. <strong>Subjects and methods:</strong> cross-sectional study is conducted on 200 healthy medical students from the Faculty of Medicine, Tabuk University. Stature and eight anthropometric foot, foot outlines and footprints measurements taken from both sides. <strong>Results:</strong> Saudi adult males are significantly taller than females. Values of all measurements are statistically significantly higher for males than females. Most measurements on both sides are positively correlated with stature in both sexes. Regression equations and multiple regression equations for estimation of stature from anthropometric foot, foot outlines and footprints measurements on both sides in males and females were created. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> This study has demonstrated the utility and reliability of stature estimation standards developed from anthropometric foot, foot outlines and footprints measurements in a Saudi Arabian population, with accuracy comparable to skeletal standards.</p> Shrouk M Ali Azza H Elelemi Maryna A Kornieieva Rasha M Farghaly Mahrous A Ibrahim Copyright (c) 2 2 Estimation of Stature from Lower Limbs of the Male Children of Uttar Pradesh, India. <p><strong>Background:</strong> The present study is aimed at stature estimation from lower limbs in the districts of Chandauli and Mirzapur male children, Uttar Pradesh (India). Five hundred and one (501) children aged between eight to fourteen years volunteered to participate in the study and the data were obtained through multistage random sampling in the academic year 2014-2015.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>Four anthropometric quantifications: - Stature, Trochanterion length, Tibiale-laterale length, and Biepicondylar femur breadth taken on the right-hand side in each participant (ISAK guideline) were included in the study.&nbsp; Obtained data were analyzed and an endeavour was made to ascertain the correlation and to derive a regression model between stature (dependent variable) and Trochanterion length, Tibiale-laterale length, and Biepicondylar femur breadth (estimates). All culled estimates obtained a significant correlation at P&lt;0.05. The independent t-test was utilized to compare authentic stature and estimates’ stature and all three segments were obtained subsequently.&nbsp; It signifies the developed regression models were good for estimation of stature and the Trochanterion length is very robust to estimates the stature.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The findings from this study will have important applications in the formulation of biological profiles during forensic investigations and disaster victim identification through the regression equations for stature prediction from above said body segments</p> Ajeet Jaiswal Copyright (c) 2 2 NANOTECHNOLOGY: A POWERFUL TOOL IN FORENSIC SCIENCE FOR SOLVING CRIMINAL CASES <p><em>Nanotechnology has emerged as a phoenix in the field of forensic science and proved to be of great importance in solving criminal cases where other techniques failed or lead to futile results. This field of science possess humongous potential in the field of forensic science and assist in crime detection. It holds huge amount of value in making a positive contribution in assisting forensic experts and scientists in nabbing the criminals and most importantly prevent any wrongful conviction. In the past decade many researchers have reported the satisfactory application of Nano technique in Forensic science for analysis of latent fingerprints, drug analysis in drug facilitated crimes, warfare agent detection, DNA analysis, counter terrorism, GSR detection, post blast residue analysis, security measures, etc. It has been proved to be a robust approach for detection of crime with greater selectivity, sensitivity, reliability and results are produced in a timely appropriate manner. The constant development of nanotechnology &amp; its application in the field of Forensic Science in the past decade has been highlighted and the cruciality of Nano technique in meeting the challenges in forensic investigation has been elucidated through this review article.</em></p> NILIMAMAYEE SAMAL Copyright (c) 2 2 حقائق تطوير لقاحات كوفيد -١٩ (COVID-19) ومناقشتها من منظور أمن وسلامة الصحة العالمية <p>لا يزال فيروس سارس كوفيد ٢ أو (SARS-CoV-2) أو بمسمى آخر (كوفيد ١٩) يمثل مشكلة وبائية عالمية تؤثر على الملايين، وبالتالي يحث المجتمع العلمي في العالم على تطوير لقاح فعال وتصميم تدابير مناسبة للسيطرة على هذا المرض. في الوقت الحالي، يعد التطعيم هو الحل الأكثر جدوى للعدوى من الفيروسات. على الرغم من المخاوف المحتملة بشأن الآثار الجانبية من تنفيذ لقاح سريع التطور، تهدف الورقة الحالية إلى مناقشة حقائق تطوير لقاحات كوفيد ١٩ من منظور أمن وسلامة الصحة العالمية. قام العلماء في جميع أنحاء العالم بالعمل جنبًا إلى جنب مع الشركات العالمية في كل من القطاعين العام والخاص، بترتيب برامج تعاونية بشكل متواصل للتعرف على كوفيد ١٩، إلى جانب اتخاذ خطوات متزامنة بشأن ابتكار لقاحات وإعداد خطط علاجية فعالة.</p> <p>حتى الآن، تم إجراء العديد من التجارب السريرية بنجاح للموافقة على كفاءة اللقاحات المقترحة واعتمادها للتطبيق والتوزيع. من جهة أخرى تمت معالجة مخاوف منظمة الصحية العالمية بشأن كفاءة اللقاحات: مثل مدى ارتفاع تكاليف الإنتاج والتأكد من توفيرها للبلدان النامية والفقيرة، وتأثيرها على الاقتصاد العالمي. تعرض هذه الورقة الجهود الحالية المرتبطة بتطوير لقاحات ضد وباء كوفيد ١٩، والذي لا زال يؤثر حاليًا على الحالة الصحية العالمية، الاجتماعية والاقتصادية. بالإضافة إلى ذلك، تهدف هذه الورقة إلى عرض ومناقشة المخاطر المحتملة بتطوير لقاحات كوفيد ١٩ من منظور سلامة وأمن الصحة العالمية.</p> Wedad Al-Qahtani Copyright (c) 2 2 Author’s Response <p>This letter is a response to Letter to the Editor (Corkery J, Schifano F, Guirguis A.&nbsp;Commentary on: Attafi IM, Albeishy MY, Oraiby ME, Khardali IA, Shaikhain GA, Fageeh MM. Postmortem Distribution of Cathinone and Cathine in Human Biological Specimens in a Case of Death Associated with Khat Chewing. Arab J Forensic Sci Forensic Med. 2018 Jun 7;1(7).&nbsp;Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences &amp; Forensic Medicine. 2019 Dec 31;1(10):1473-1475.)</p> Ibraheem Mohammed Attafi Mohammed Y. Albeishy Magbool E. Oraiby Ibrahim A. Khardali Ghassan A. Shaikhain Mohsen M. Fageeh Copyright (c) 2 2 10.26735/BWDU1018 Medicolegal Issues and Challenges in Clinical-Forensic Practices during COVID 19 Pandemic <p>An outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic due to the birth of a novel human coronavirus has engulfed the entire world and put it at high risk. Although the whole globe is stopped dead due to this pandemic, the world of crime is still rising with several crimes and people are still victimized and killed due to suicide, homicide, or accident. Forensic practitioners, mainly in the field of clinical-forensic medicine have to investigate those suspicious or sudden unexpected deaths, including deaths due to infection of COVID-19 via autopsy to expose the cause(s) of death. These forensic pathologists are facing many challenges and a great risk of potential infection during postmortem examination as that deceased body may be infected with COVID-19. This pandemic has led to medical malpractice and a reduced number of proper complete autopsies, which could draw a veil over the criminal offenses and conceal a truth behind death, led to a miscarriage of justice. Autopsies were ignored in most deaths during the pandemic as an exception following COVID-19 guidelines. This article enlights various medicolegal issues, risks, and challenges caused during autopsy due to this pandemic situation and also provide insights for protective bio-safety guidelines for a forensic death investigation</p> Devidas Bhagat Copyright (c) 2 2 An Overview of Forensic Voltammetric Analysis of New Psychoactive Substances <p>New Psychoactive Substances (NPS) are synthetic drugs that create similar effects as various narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances. Different NPS such as mephedrone, synthacaine, synthetic cannabinoids, etc. are available today which are sold using numerous platforms like drug markets, head shops, dark webs, etc. They are emerging rapidly and becoming popular in society because of their variable nature and easy to escape from the law. Consequently, their analysis is extremely crucial in the prohibition of drug abuse and the development of laboratory methods. This review introduces a broad overview of the analysis of various new psychoactive substances by voltammetric techniques such as cyclic voltammetry, differential pulse voltammetry, square wave voltammetry, stripping voltammetry, etc. It also focuses on various methodologies that were developed for the detection of these NPS which play a leading role in forensic investigation by providing a rapid, sensitive, and cost-effective platform of analysis. The need for the advancement of varied methods and analysis of more drugs is additionally discussed.</p> Ketan Patil Ketan Patil Astha Pandey Copyright (c) 2 2 1,2-Indanedione (IND) Reagent for The Detection of Latent Fingermarks: A Review <p>1,2-Indanedione (IND) is a chemical method for the detection of latent fingermarks on dry, porous surfaces such as paper, cardboard etc. It is an amino acid sensitive fluorescent reagent for developing latent fingermarks. The method is based on interaction of IND with amino acid fraction of latent fingermarks. The method develops clear, stable, pink (also known as Joullie pink) colored fingerprints which are fluorescent in nature. It is an efficient and non-destructive procedure for developing latent fingermarks on wide range of surfaces of forensic importance. Standardized testing of IND formulation is suggested to improve the eficiency of this reagent to develop latent fingermarks on wide range of surfaces of forensic importance.</p> Sachil Kumar Devidas Sudam Bhagat Gurvinder Singh Bumbrah Copyright (c) 2 2 10.26735/NRYD9355 Differentiation of high velocity ammunition type from GSR metal element originating from different firearm: a Pilot Study <p>The examination of GSR collected from the scene of occurrence is critical to the forensic science community because it provides answers to problems such as distinguishing between entry and exit wounds, estimating the range of fire, and linking an individual to the use of a firearm. Insufficient information exists on the differentiation of ammunition type through the analysis of GSR. This study investigated the potential of differentiating between ammunition types through the analysis of its metallic residue using energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. Three firearms (AK-47 assault rifle, Self-loading rifle, and Carbine rifle) were adopted for the study. Overall, a series of 6 shots were performed from each firearm at a muzzle-target angle of 0˚ (perpendicular to the target surface).The residues were subjected to a non-destructive analysis by energy dispersive X-Ray fluorescence (EDXRF-7000, Shimadzu) without sample preparation. Gunshot residues originating from 9mm Carbine, AK-47 and Self-loading rifle produced common metal element including P, K, Cu, Ti, and Zn. Considering that, analysis of the sample residue was carried out EDXRF, it was unreliable to predict the ammunition type from the particles that originated from the firearm-ammunition employed.</p> ABHIJITSINH PARMAR Copyright (c) 2 2 An Experimental Setup to manually determine the Pen Pressure of any Author for forensic comparisons using mathematical relations <p>Pen pressure is an individual characteristic of every author. It is near decisive in determining authorship. However, it has been observed that there is no established method for calculation of this individualistic value. This paper proposes an experimental setup to manually calculate the pen pressure of an author using a simple mathematical relation between speed and pressure which considers the displacement on a writing surface with respect to time. The proposed relation can be utilized to derive the value of stress applied by the author on a given writing surface. This value can be quantified and utilised for automatic author identification systems of the future as well. The proposed methodology employs no electronic sensors, expensive experimental setups or specially designed hardware for calculation. Yet it consistently delivers a numerical distinction for every author.</p> Nidhi Sagarwal Mohit Soni Copyright (c) 2 2 Forensic dental age estimation of North Indian children using three radiological scoring methods <p><em>Background</em>: Dental age estimations, although believed to be reliable in children, have reportedly shown variations in their accuracy levels indicating regional differences. Present study aims to study the error thresholds of Nolla, Demirjian and Willems methods for age estimation of North Indian children.</p> <p><em>Method and Results</em>: Digital orthopantomograms of 168 children aged 3-15 years were analyzed for the three methods. Demirjian dental age was found to be closest to the mean chronological age as indicated by the p-value of paired t-test. The error range for Willems and Demirijian methods was ±5 years with 87.5% cases showing error within the range of ±2 years and it was ±6 years with 84.5% cases with error within ±2 years using Nolla method. Mean absolute error for Nolla, Demirjian and Willems methods was 1.09, 1.10 and 0.97 years, respectively.</p> <p><em>Conclusion</em> Willems method was better suited for dental age estimation of studied population, though none of the methods precisely estimated age of the participants. Wide variations in age estimates of varied population groups may be due to differences in statistical methods or population aspects. Thus, comparison of the methods for different populations by the same researcher is suggested to reduce certain biasness in the study.</p> Deeksha Sankhyan Copyright (c) 2 2 Ethics in medical research – An Indian Perspective <p>Ethics represents a universal code describing one’s character-an established state of the soul in different situations that require great acumen. Failure to address the ethical issues in a coherent and logically scientific manner received a host of criticism from various institutions including the non-stakes. However, in absence of clear and broadly out reached recommendations and laws concerning the use of fixed human tissues for secondary research-oriented aims, it is possible that objectionable and unethical practices might well (if not always) compromise the patient/individual autonomy. This manuscript might have never been executed had we not confronted with unnecessary queries while applying for ethical clearance of the project, which includes leftover surplus histopathological tissues for other research aims. Although with regard to the issue, the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) document proposes waiving of consent provided no direct contact is established between the researcher and the donor. The core issues concerning research on the acquired surplus human tissues (archived tissues) are insufficient as well as unclear. Pertinently, the restrictions on secondary use of biological samples and data after the completion of a particular study is a cause of concern as the leftover material(s) is made unavailable for additional research. The paradigm of informed consent should therefore, be specific and sufficiently informative regarding risks, all the usual uses of the collected samples, future research on the left over surplus human bio-banking materials, benefits to participants, benefits to society at large, ownership rights and withdrawal from participation along with its consequences.</p> Sami Ullah Copyright (c) 2 2 Allele Diversity, Haplotype Frequency, Haplotype Diversity and Forensic Genotyping of Fulanis and Yorubas resident in Ilorin, Kwara State, North Central of Nigeria <p>Nigeria is the most populous African nation comprising of over 250 ethnic groups. Yoruba and Fulani are the second and fourth largest ethnic groups in Nigeria respectively. Forensic genotyping of Short Tandem Repeats (STRs) are used in computation of Combined DNA Index System databases of individuals and ethnic groups. We examined Allele Diversity, Haplotype Frequency, Haplotype Diversity and forensic genotyping data of autosomal STRs in Fulanis and Yorubas resident in Ilorin, Kwara State and North Central of Nigeria.&nbsp;</p> <p>Samples of unrelated 25 Fulani males and 23 Yoruba males whose ethnicity were confirmed by three generations (paternal and maternal) were collected with informed consent. The samples were amplified using SureID® 21G PCR Amplification Kit containing Amelogenin and 20 autosomal STR loci: CSF1PO, D1S1656, D12S11, D12S391, D13S317, D16S539, D18S51, D19S433, D2S1338, D3S1358, D5S818, D6S1043, D7S820, D8S1179, FGA, PENTA D, PENTA E, TH01, TPOX and vWA; and genotyped subsequent to capillary electrophoresis.</p> <p>Statistical analyses of forensic genotyping parameters confirmed no deviation from expectation of Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium and no dependence of alleles between loci.</p> <p>All tested loci were polymorphic. Expected Heterozygosity and gene diversity parameters showed lower genetic diversity amongst Fulanis compared to Yorubas, possibly due to customs-prevalent marriages between cousins amongst Fulanis, but forbidden in Yoruba customs.</p> Adelaja Akinlolu Nabila Sule Maryam Muhammed David Oyedepo Maryam Olawole Mercy Adejumo Yusuf Anigilaje Moshood Yusuf Precious Omole Temiloluwa Bukoye Tomilayo Olatunji Samuel Shodiya Rahman Bolarinwa Copyright (c) 2 2 Fatal Pulmonary Thromboembolism following leg massage - a case report <p><strong>Fatal Pulmonary Thromboembolism following leg massage -&nbsp; a case report</strong></p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em></p> <p><strong>Introduction:</strong></p> <p>Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a condition that includes both deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary thromboembolism (PE). It is a major cause of morbidity and mortality after formation of DVT. Few case reports and case series of massage-related adverse events are mentioned in the literature. This case illustrates the occurrence of PE in which ended fatally in a man who develop sudden bilateral calf pain who resorted to ayurvedic treatment.</p> <p><strong>Case History:</strong></p> <p>A 38-year-old recently married man developed bilateral calf pain of one-week duration. After seeking treatment initially from a general practitioner, he decided to resort to ayurvedic treatment later. Calf massaging was done, and the victim collapses soon after massaging. He was confirmed dead on arrival at the hospital. Autopsy revealed massive pulmonary embolism and presence of DVT in calf muscles.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong></p> <p>A major deterrent to effective prevention and treatment of VTE is a general lack of awareness. Prolonged period of inactivity is a known factor that promote formation of deep vein thrombosis. He has a history of standing for prolonged periods of time and probably massaging resulted in dislodging the thrombus causing PE.</p> <p>However available data is not sufficient to arrive at a conclusion on association of PE with act of massaging. In conclusion, massage therapies are not totally devoid of risks. The incidence of adverse events is unknown but seems to be low. However even fatal effects similar to this case could occur occasionally</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Asela Mendis Copyright (c) 2 2 Qualitative Analysis of Post-blast Residue using the Double Hyphenated UHPLC-(HESI)-MS/MS Technique <p>In this paper, the identification and forensic analysis of post-blast residues recovered from controlled blast sites has been presented. The targeted sample was extracted from post-blast soil by using the Accelerated Solvent Extraction technique. The average recovery varies from 86-93% at 250, 500,750 and 1000 ng/g concentration level. The target compound was primarily identified to be PETN (Penta Erythritol Tetra Nitrate) by a color test and TLC (Thin Layer Chromatography). The confirmatory test for the target analyte was done by using LC-MS/MS (Liquid Chromatography - Tandem Mass Spectrometry). Heated Electron Spray Ionization (HESI) interface with negative mode was employed and SRM (Selected Reaction Monitoring) on Triple Quadruple Mass Analyzer was used for confirmation of PETN in the sample. The Limit of Detection (LOD) obtained from the analysis of post-blast residue by using this method was 7.9 ng/g. This manuscript demonstrates the viability of LC-MS/MS for a fast, accurate and quality-assured analysis of post-blast residue.</p> NILIMAMAYEE SAMAL Abhinandan Patra Jeba O. Shiney Copyright (c) 2 2 10.26735/ZUAY6063 PROFILING OF BENZODIAZEPINES USING FLUOROSCENCE SPECTROFLUOROMETRY: A DETAILED REVIEW <p>Benzodiazepines (BZDs) are one of the most widely used psychoactive drugs for the treatment of anxiety and panic disorders, insomnia, muscle relaxation, epilepsy among other purposes. Given its rampant consumption worldwide, BZDs are used in a number of drug facilitated sexual assaults (DFSA), suicides and driving under the influence of drugs. Therefore, BZDs and their metabolites are commonly detected in both clinical and forensic cases. Hence, there’s a need to develop a simple and efficient method for the detection and determination of BZDs in different biological specimens. This paper provides a summary of methods for the detection and quantification of BZDs and their metabolites in commonly used biological matrices. The commonly used methods are: GC-MS, HPLC, TLC, spectrophotometry and spectrofluorometry.</p> saloni chadha Copyright (c) 2 2 Slant and Stroke as Cognitive Factors of Handedness <p>Handwriting examination is an utmost challenge for questioned document examiners and is very crucial for them to elicit the important facts that can play a significant role in the legal inquiry. In the present study, a total of 100 handwriting samples were collected at Bundelkhand University, Jhansi with an equal representation of both left-handed and right-handed writers. Slant and strokes present in the handwriting samples were visually examined with the help of a transparent grid sheet, illuminator, and magnifying glass so as to ascertain the handedness. A significant difference was observed in the handwritings of both left-handed and right-handed writers. The results of the study indicate that left-handed writers are more likely to make strokes in the right-to-left direction and slant of the letters is in the backward direction while right-hand writers make strokes in the left-to-right direction and slant of the letters is in the forward direction.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Pawan Gupta Copyright (c) 2 2 دور الميتاداتا والبيانات المخفية في التحقيق الجنائي الرقمي <p>nowadays, Technology is part of the daily activities of many people, specifically forensic investigators, who became using informational evidence Which is integrate with the forensic investigation process through the Internet with many tools to make the technology applicable to judicial circles, to become more effective.</p> <p>officials need to cope with developments to control Technological developments had made it possible to achieve significant improvements in Digital Forensic Investigation and understand all that is related to available data in a collective manner through analysis and exchange it. also to the fact that using metadata in Digital Forensic Investigation is something new and that forensic investigators should turn to this supporting evidence. The purpose of this paper is to identify the role of Metadata and Steganography in Digital Forensic Investigation.</p> <p>The study adopted the descriptive approach through which the research works reviewed in this study were chosen. Using Metadata and Steganography separately or together In Digital Forensic Investigation context, their abstracts were presented and organized in a way that achieves the study aims and answers its questions. By reviewing these researches, The study able to shed light on the challenges and issues associated with the use of Metadata and Steganography in developing solutions that contributed to anti-crime under the criminal investigation. the study also able to develop recommendations of what should be taken into account, whether by researchers when designing similar solutions or by officials when planning to use them so that they are highly effective.</p> أروى الميلبي Copyright (c) 2 2 A Unique Allele Variant at STR Locus D2S1338 in a Paternity Testing Case <p><strong>Background:</strong> The relationship testing through DNA profiling may undesirably be affected by the rare allele variants, tri-allelic pattern and null alleles. Therefore, it is vital to report such anomalies. We report a paternity testing in a sexual assault case studied at Punjab Forensic Science Agency, Lahore Pakistan showing a unique allele variant in mother and child.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> DNA was extracted from the buccal swabs of reference samples using organic extraction method and DNA profiling was done for 15 autosomal STRs and amelogenin using Identifiler Plus kit.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> A novel out of marker range (OMR) allele variant between STR Loci D16S539 and D2S1338 was observed in the DNA profiles of victim (mother) as well as the child. At STR locus D2S1338 Twenty one different allele variant are listed at STRBase ranging from 11 to 28. The allele variant observed in this case study was appeared at less than marker range (&lt; D2S1338) with a size of 297.50 bp. The novel variant OMR allele at D2S1338 was labeled as allele 13, when compared to the other allele in allelic ladder.</p> <p>Moreover, the PFSA DNA database was searched for this unique allelic variation and it was found that this was present in only two other samples of distinct cases.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The overall frequency of this unique allele variant was 3 in 10,125 unrelated individuals with frequency of occurrence of 0.0296. According to our limited knowledge it is the first report of a novel OMR allele variant at D2S1338 in Pakistani Population.</p> Sajjad Ahmad Sadaqat ALi Nasir Siddique Qazi Laeeque Ahmad Muhammad Amjad Mohammad Ashraf Tahir Copyright (c) 2 2 10.26735/ABHS9965 Descriptive analysis of ligature composition in correlation with patho-anatomic findings in neck region due to hanging fatalities <p>Background-</p> <p>Hanging is the commonest form of violent asphyxial death cases coming for medicolegal autopsy. Ligature material is one of the most important factors determining the causation of external and internal injuries to neck in hanging.&nbsp; The material make and the surface characteristic of the ligature material are determinant characteristics of a ligature material. Study of both external and internal injuries over neck, are important in cases of hanging.</p> <p>Results-</p> <p>Hard &amp; rough group of ligature material was the commonest group of ligature material and was also the commonest group for the causation of various external injuries and internal injuries.</p> <p>Conclusion:-</p> <p>&nbsp;It was concluded that there is increased prevalence of external and internal injuries in hard make ligature materials and rough surface ligature materials. Detailed analysis of ligature materials and their types can help in correlating the various anatomical and pathological findings associated in fatalities due to hanging.</p> SHIBANAND NEPAL KARMAKAR Nilesh Keshav Tumram Pradeep Gangadhar Dixit Copyright (c) 2 2 Social media app as an effective learning-teaching module for creating awareness among Medical Practitioners regarding the legal duties. <p>Aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of social media app for creating awareness among medical practitioners regarding their legal responsibilities related to the medical profession.WhatsApp app was chosen for this study. A WhatsAppGroup of 30 volunteered medical practitioners was formed, and discussion was limited to various articles related to the legal duties of doctors in medical practice.Before the formation of a study,a pre-assessment test was taken of all participants with a peer-reviewed questionnaire, and after that, various study material circulated on the WhatsApp group along with an active discussion on the circulated study material for a period of one month. The post-assessment test was taken after one month, and the result was analyzed.It has been observed that social media apps like WhatsApp could be effective in teaching-learning methods for creating awareness on certain topics.</p> Toshal Wankhade Copyright (c) 2 2 A Case of Death Following Postoperative Rhabdomyolysis <p><strong>Background</strong>: Postoperative rhabdomyolysis is a well-known complication, especially after prolonged surgery. There are few published reports of rhabdomyolysis following ear surgery. This phenomenon of massive muscle necrosis can produce secondary acute renal failure. The risk factors have to be managed carefully during anesthetic management. We report a case male patient who developed rhabdomyolysis precipitated acute kidney injury after Reconstructive ear surgery.</p> <p><strong>Case presentation</strong>: A patient in his fourteen underwent a prolonged surgery of 08 hours and 30 minutes for repairing his amputated right ear under general anesthesia. The patient’s postoperative course was complicated by rhabdomyolysis manifested by elevated levels of serum creatine phosphokinase (100000 IU/l). Subsequently, the patient developed secondary acute renal failure necessitating hemodialysis, but at that point, he had an unrecovered cardiac arrest which led to his death. The linkage between surgical positioning, prolonged surgery time, and rhabdomyolysis is discussed.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Prolonged duration of surgery is a well-recognized risk factor in the development of rhabdomyolysis. Early recognition of rhabdomyolysis induced acute kidney injury is important in reducing the postoperative morbidity and mortality in patients. A protocol based approach could be applied for early recognition and management.</p> Hind ABOUZAHIR Copyright (c) 2 2 Fatal Fall from height and Self Inflicted Wounds-A Case of Complex Unplanned Suicide. <p>A 32-year-old man Jumped to Death in his Multistoried Apartment. He had Multiple Deep incised wounds on his Left Forearm and Neck. The incident was Concluded as Suicide after a proper Police investigation, Crime Scene Investigation, Circumstances Analysis, and Complete Autopsy. Although Suicides by Fall is not uncommon but associated Multiple Deep incised Wounds on the Neck and Extremities is not Known, Though Self inflicted Incised wounds are frequently reported. We present this Rare and Unheard case of Complex and Unplanned Suicide, a combination of Deep incised Neck wounds and Extremity Wounds in a Fatal Fall. The Crime Scene investigation, the method employed, the autopsy findings, and the interview with their relatives altogether pointed toward a suicidal etiology.</p> DINESH RAO Copyright (c) 2 2 Fatal tracheal perforation in self-inflicted stab injury to neck with a pair of scissors – A Case report <p>Self-inflicted stab wounds to neck are relatively uncommon than cut-throat injuries. We report a case of self-inflicted stab injury over the neck with a pair of scissors by a young male under the influence of alcohol. The injury was single in nature, left-sided and the tract of the wound passed through the submandibular gland, internal jugular vein, and thyroid gland eventually causing perforation of the left wall of the trachea. Grade IV subcutaneous emphysema was present in the face, neck and chest. Combination of thyroid, trachea and jugular vein injuries in self-inflicted stab wound using scissors is uncommon in forensic literature. Meticulous dissection is to be carried out to assess the tract of the injury to co-related with the weapon used in sharp force injuries to the neck.</p> KIRTHIKA RAVI Copyright (c) 2 2 AN AUTOPSY STUDY OF 64 HOMICIDAL CRUSHING INJURIES TO HEAD [BLUDGEON INJURY] <p>This Prospective Study was conducted during the period 2009 to November 2020. A Total of 9684 Autopsies were Conducted during this period, Homicidal Fatal Crush Injury Head cases comprised of 64 cases,i.e.0.66% of Cases. The Majority of the Victims were Females,72% [n-46], and Males 28% cases. Sex-related Motives were the Major Factor in Female[24 cases] Homicides, Followed by Loot in 09 cases. In Males, Loathing and Loot were the main factors contributing in 6&amp; 4 cases. The Majority of the Females Victims Occupation was Sex Worker/Prostitutes &amp; Labor Class comprising 27 % 09 cases respectively. In the Majority of Female Homicides, the Murder Weapon was recovered next to the body in 23 of the cases whereas the same was recovered in only 03 cases in Males. Granite Block or Boulder Formed the Major Choice of Bludgeon or Murder Weapon in 34 cases of Female Victims and 08 cases of Male Victims. The Majority of the Female Victims[22 cases] were Bludgeoned on the Mud floor.The Majority of the Victims in Both the sexes belonged to the age group 21-30years, contributing to 9 &amp; 21 cases in Male and Females Respectively.</p> DINESH RAO Copyright (c) 2 2 Morphological analysis of thyroid gland in cases of alleged su-icidal deaths: A prospective analysis <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> The thyroid gland is a bi-lobed structure located in front of neck weighing about 40 grams. It starts functioning at about 10th week of fetal life and plays vital role in tissue metabolism and general growth and development. It secretes three hormones T3, T4 and Thyrocalcitonin.&nbsp;<strong>Aims &amp; objective:</strong> To study association of the changes in the weight and morphology of thyroid gland in suicidal and non suicidal cases.&nbsp;<strong>Material and methods:</strong> In this prospective study, thyroid glands were collected from dead bodies brought for medico-legal autopsies to the department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology from Dec. 2015 to Sep. 2017. After removal, the weight was recorded, and then the gland was preserved and fixation done in 10 % formalin for more than 2 weeks. After 2 weeks, grossing was done and slides were prepared and studied.&nbsp;<strong>Results:</strong> In study group cases, maximum weight of thyroid gland was 27.6 grams and minimum was 18.5 grams. In control group cases, maximum weight was 26.5 grams and minimum was 18.7 grams. The mean weight of the thyroid gland in the suicidal group was 22.21 grams and the standard deviation was 2.21 grams. Of 50 study cases, 15 (30%) revealed significant pathological findings and the rest 35 (70%) were histologically normal (Fig.6). 14 of these cases (28%) revealed focal lymphocytic thyroiditis (FLT) and only 1 case (2%) showed nodular goitre (NG).&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Thyroid gland, suicide, weight, depression, lymphocytic thyroiditis</p> AMANDEEP SINGH Copyright (c) 2 2 IDENTIFICATION OF CITES-LISTED Euphorbia royleana THROUGH DNA BARCODING TECHNOLOGY: A NEW FACET IN WILDILDLIFE FORENSICS <p>Disorganized and chaotic collections of&nbsp;<em>Euphorbia&nbsp;</em>plant species from the wild resources is one of the major reason of its endangered status. According to CITES, the trade-in&nbsp;<em>Euphorbia royleana&nbsp;</em>species is prohibited under Appendix II. However, the trade continues unabated as current identification methods don't embrace potential to discriminate between closely related species.</p> <p>&nbsp;In the present study, DNA Barcoding method has been used to establish inter and intra-specific divergences of both matK and rbcL regions by using pair-wise genetic distance measurement methods for evaluating the maximum Barcoding gap.</p> <p>The&nbsp;<em>matk and rbcL</em>&nbsp;yielded 100% amplification and sequencing success rate to distinguish closely related species of&nbsp;<em>Euphorbia royleana&nbsp;</em>unambiguously.<em>&nbsp;The matk and rbcL showed</em><em>&nbsp;</em>an average of 0.031and 0.015 interspecific genetic distance divergence value respectively. Maximum number of species-specific SNPs was observed in&nbsp;<em>matK</em>&nbsp;sequences at seven consecutive sites, which could distinguish&nbsp;<em>Euphorbia royleana</em>&nbsp;from closely related species.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>The best candidate barcoding region to identify&nbsp;<em>Euphorbia royleana</em> found to be&nbsp;<em>matK&nbsp;</em>with a single-locus barcoding approach. Further, the species discrimination method was developed with the help of species-specific SNPs derived from the&nbsp;<em>matK </em>barcoding region to accurately authenticate&nbsp;<em>Euphorbia royleana</em> and provided 100 % species resolution.&nbsp;</p> Tina Sharma Mukesh K Thakar Copyright (c) 2 2 Way for Implementation of Vaccine on COVID-19 <p>From December 2019 to December 2020, the world was covered by life-threatening COVID-19. Several research institutes and companies are working hard to find a vaccine for COVID-19. The SARS-CoV-2 vaccine will soon be available worldwide. The main objective of this article is to study how to implementation of Vaccine on COVID-19 infection by good management.</p> SAMIN SHAIKH Copyright (c) 2 2 Comparison of Dry needling and medicine ball on Gastrocnemius and soleus for the range of motion after the Ankle Inversion sprain: An experimental study. <h1>Abstract</h1> <h1>Background: Ankle sprain is among the most severe sports injuries. Seventy-five per cent of this cause of damage is shocking to the inversion. Acute Ankle trauma is responsible for 10-30 per cent of sports popular in young athletes, which was of primary importance in athletes involved in running and jumping sports enhancing functional performance in patients with an acute ankle sprain.</h1> <p><strong>Purpose: </strong>The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of dry needling as compared to Medicine ball.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>60 Subjects fulfilling inclusion and exclusion criteria were selected for the study which was divided into two groups (n =30 in each group). Group A was treated with Medicine ball and RICE protocol and group B with Dry needling and RICE protocol. Here we are using cryotherapy at gastrocnemius&amp; soleus complex and lateral side of the ankle region for 10 min in both the groups. Treatment was given for 3 weeks.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The result of this study was analyzed by SPSS by using paired and unpaired T-test. Both groups had significant improvement but there were significant differences between the two groups in terms range of motion and Ankle function.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Medicine ball is more effective in reducing an improving range of motion, functional improvement of the ankle as compared to dry needling.</p> yasas chandra datla Copyright (c) 2 2 Response of forensic scientific community to Covid-19 pandemic: A Review Article <p>The purpose of this review was to show the impact of Covid-19 pandemic on forensic sciences, as reflected in the publications, which appeared in 2020. The review covered following topics: Response of legal medical experts on the increased daily workload in forensic practice and enhanced risk issues arising in forensic practice, particularly regarding autopsy, drugs used in Covid-19 therapy and their toxicological significance, and influence of Covid-19 pandemic on the profile and extent of substance abuse.</p> Maciej J. Bogusz Copyright (c) 2 2 10.26735/PADJ1368 Effectiveness of Deep transverse friction massage and kinesiotaping Versus Deep transverse friction massage and sham taping on pain, disability and range of motion in patients with latent trigger points of upper trapezius: An experimental study. <p><strong>ABSTRACT:</strong>Latent trigger points&nbsp; do not cause local tenderness till direct pressure is applied . The purpose of the deep friction massage is that to maintain the mobility within soft tissues structures such as ligaments , muscles . This technique could be added with Kinesio tape to improve the range of motion .</p> <p>The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of deep transverse friction massage along with Kinesio-tape&nbsp; to compare with deep transverse friction massage added with sham taping on pain , disability , range of motion in patients with latent trigger point on upper trapezius muscle .</p> <p><strong>Methodology </strong>:&nbsp; 60 patients with latent trigger points on upper trapezius&nbsp; , age 18 to 30 years were selected &nbsp;. The patients divided into 2 groups A and B. Group A consisted of 30 patient who took deep transverse friction massage along with Kinesio taping . Group B consisted of 30 patients who received deep transverse friction massage added with sham taping. Each group had undergone 3 sessions per week for 2 weeks with 30 minutes per session ..</p> <p><strong>Statistical analysis</strong> : The result analyzed by SPSS software . The normality of the data tested by Shapirowilk test . Mann whitney U test used for group comparison&nbsp; and Wilkcoxon test applied for the within group comparison .</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong> : The deep transverse friction massage along with Kinesio taping had higher improvement of latent trigger point on upper trapezius&nbsp; as compared to deep transverse friction massage applied with sham taping .</p> Gurinder Singh Copyright (c) 2 2 Comparison of Dry needling and medicine ball on Gastrocnemius and soleus for the range of motion after the Ankle Inversion sprain: An experimental study. <h1>Background: Ankle sprain is among the most severe sports injuries. Seventy-five per cent of this cause of damage is shocking to the inversion. Acute Ankle trauma is responsible for 10-30 per cent of sports popular in young athletes, which was of primary importance in athletes involved in running and jumping sports enhancing functional performance in patients with an acute ankle sprain.</h1> <p><strong>Purpose: </strong>The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of dry needling as compared to Medicine ball.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>60 Subjects fulfilling inclusion and exclusion criteria were selected for the study which was divided into two groups (n =30 in each group). Group A was treated with Medicine ball and RICE protocol and group B with Dry needling and RICE protocol. Here we are using cryotherapy at gastrocnemius&amp; soleus complex and lateral side of the ankle region for 10 min in both the groups. Treatment was given for 3 weeks.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The result of this study was analyzed by SPSS by using paired and unpaired T-test. Both groups had significant improvement but there were significant differences between the two groups in terms range of motion and Ankle function.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Medicine ball is more effective in reducing an improving range of motion, functional improvement of the ankle as compared to dry needling.</p> MD FIROJ ALAM MD FIROJ ALAM Copyright (c) 2 2