Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM <p style="text-align: justify;">The Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences &amp; Forensic Medicine (AJFSFM) is an open access (CC BY-NC), peer-reviewed, and free of charge journal dedicated to the development and application of forensic science and forensic medical knowledge and research for the purpose of law and justice across the globe. The AJFSFM is an official publication (ISSN 1658-6786) of the Arab Society for Forensic Sciences and Forensic Medicine (ASFSFM) and is published biannually by Naif Arab University for Security Sciences (NAUSS), Riyadh – Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.</p> Naif Arab University for Security Sciences en-US Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine 1658-6786 <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;You must read and accept the copyright terms and conditions(<a href="https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/Copyrights" target="_blank" rel="noopener">click here for&nbsp;copyright terms</a>).</p> Social media app as an effective learning-teaching module for creating awareness among Medical Practitioners regarding the legal duties. https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1418 <p>Aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of social media app for creating awareness among medical practitioners regarding their legal responsibilities related to the medical profession.WhatsApp app was chosen for this study. A WhatsAppGroup of 30 volunteered medical practitioners was formed, and discussion was limited to various articles related to the legal duties of doctors in medical practice.Before the formation of a study,a pre-assessment test was taken of all participants with a peer-reviewed questionnaire, and after that, various study material circulated on the WhatsApp group along with an active discussion on the circulated study material for a period of one month. The post-assessment test was taken after one month, and the result was analyzed.It has been observed that social media apps like WhatsApp could be effective in teaching-learning methods for creating awareness on certain topics.</p> Toshal Wankhade Copyright (c) 2 2 A Case of Death Following Postoperative Rhabdomyolysis https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1417 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Postoperative rhabdomyolysis is a well-known complication, especially after prolonged surgery. There are few published reports of rhabdomyolysis following ear surgery. This phenomenon of massive muscle necrosis can produce secondary acute renal failure. The risk factors have to be managed carefully during anesthetic management. We report a case male patient who developed rhabdomyolysis precipitated acute kidney injury after Reconstructive ear surgery.</p> <p><strong>Case presentation</strong>: A patient in his fourteen underwent a prolonged surgery of 08 hours and 30 minutes for repairing his amputated right ear under general anesthesia. The patient’s postoperative course was complicated by rhabdomyolysis manifested by elevated levels of serum creatine phosphokinase (100000 IU/l). Subsequently, the patient developed secondary acute renal failure necessitating hemodialysis, but at that point, he had an unrecovered cardiac arrest which led to his death. The linkage between surgical positioning, prolonged surgery time, and rhabdomyolysis is discussed.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Prolonged duration of surgery is a well-recognized risk factor in the development of rhabdomyolysis. Early recognition of rhabdomyolysis induced acute kidney injury is important in reducing the postoperative morbidity and mortality in patients. A protocol based approach could be applied for early recognition and management.</p> Hind ABOUZAHIR Copyright (c) 2 2 Fatal Fall from height and Self Inflicted Wounds-A Case of Complex Unplanned Suicide. https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1416 <p>A 32-year-old man Jumped to Death in his Multistoried Apartment. He had Multiple Deep incised wounds on his Left Forearm and Neck. The incident was Concluded as Suicide after a proper Police investigation, Crime Scene Investigation, Circumstances Analysis, and Complete Autopsy. Although Suicides by Fall is not uncommon but associated Multiple Deep incised Wounds on the Neck and Extremities is not Known, Though Self inflicted Incised wounds are frequently reported. We present this Rare and Unheard case of Complex and Unplanned Suicide, a combination of Deep incised Neck wounds and Extremity Wounds in a Fatal Fall. The Crime Scene investigation, the method employed, the autopsy findings, and the interview with their relatives altogether pointed toward a suicidal etiology.</p> DINESH RAO Copyright (c) 2 2 Fatal tracheal perforation in self-inflicted stab injury to neck with a pair of scissors – A Case report https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1414 <p>Self-inflicted stab wounds to neck are relatively uncommon than cut-throat injuries. We report a case of self-inflicted stab injury over the neck with a pair of scissors by a young male under the influence of alcohol. The injury was single in nature, left-sided and the tract of the wound passed through the submandibular gland, internal jugular vein, and thyroid gland eventually causing perforation of the left wall of the trachea. Grade IV subcutaneous emphysema was present in the face, neck and chest. Combination of thyroid, trachea and jugular vein injuries in self-inflicted stab wound using scissors is uncommon in forensic literature. Meticulous dissection is to be carried out to assess the tract of the injury to co-related with the weapon used in sharp force injuries to the neck.</p> KIRTHIKA RAVI Copyright (c) 2 2 AN AUTOPSY STUDY OF 64 HOMICIDAL CRUSHING INJURIES TO HEAD [BLUDGEON INJURY] https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1413 <p>This Prospective Study was conducted during the period 2009 to November 2020. A Total of 9684 Autopsies were Conducted during this period, Homicidal Fatal Crush Injury Head cases comprised of 64 cases,i.e.0.66% of Cases. The Majority of the Victims were Females,72% [n-46], and Males 28% cases. Sex-related Motives were the Major Factor in Female[24 cases] Homicides, Followed by Loot in 09 cases. In Males, Loathing and Loot were the main factors contributing in 6&amp; 4 cases. The Majority of the Females Victims Occupation was Sex Worker/Prostitutes &amp; Labor Class comprising 27 % 09 cases respectively. In the Majority of Female Homicides, the Murder Weapon was recovered next to the body in 23 of the cases whereas the same was recovered in only 03 cases in Males. Granite Block or Boulder Formed the Major Choice of Bludgeon or Murder Weapon in 34 cases of Female Victims and 08 cases of Male Victims. The Majority of the Female Victims[22 cases] were Bludgeoned on the Mud floor.The Majority of the Victims in Both the sexes belonged to the age group 21-30years, contributing to 9 &amp; 21 cases in Male and Females Respectively.</p> DINESH RAO Copyright (c) 2 2 AN AUTOPSY STUDY OF 64 HOMICIDAL CRUSHING INJURIES TO HEAD [BLUDGEON INJURY] https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1412 <p>This Prospective Study was conducted during the period 2009 to November 2020. A Total of 9684 Autopsies were Conducted during this period, Homicidal Fatal Crush Injury Head cases comprised of 64 cases,i.e.0.66% of Cases. The Majority of the Victims were Females,72% [n-46], and Males 28% cases. Sex-related Motives were the Major Factor in Female[24 cases] Homicides, Followed by Loot in 09 cases. In Males, Loathing and Loot were the main factors contributing in 6&amp; 4 cases. The Majority of the Females Victims Occupation was Sex Worker/Prostitutes &amp; Labor Class comprising 27 % 09 cases respectively. In the Majority of Female Homicides, the Murder Weapon was recovered next to the body in 23 of the cases whereas the same was recovered in only 03 cases in Males. Granite Block or Boulder Formed the Major Choice of Bludgeon or Murder Weapon in 34 cases of Female Victims and 08 cases of Male Victims. The Majority of the Female Victims[22 cases] were Bludgeoned on the Mud floor. The Majority of the Victims in Both the sexes belonged to the age group 21-30years, contributing to 9 &amp; 21 cases in Male and Females Respectively.</p> DINESH RAO Copyright (c) 2 2 Morphological analysis of thyroid gland in cases of alleged su-icidal deaths: A prospective analysis https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1409 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> The thyroid gland is a bi-lobed structure located in front of neck weighing about 40 grams. It starts functioning at about 10th week of fetal life and plays vital role in tissue metabolism and general growth and development. It secretes three hormones T3, T4 and Thyrocalcitonin.&nbsp;<strong>Aims &amp; objective:</strong> To study association of the changes in the weight and morphology of thyroid gland in suicidal and non suicidal cases.&nbsp;<strong>Material and methods:</strong> In this prospective study, thyroid glands were collected from dead bodies brought for medico-legal autopsies to the department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology from Dec. 2015 to Sep. 2017. After removal, the weight was recorded, and then the gland was preserved and fixation done in 10 % formalin for more than 2 weeks. After 2 weeks, grossing was done and slides were prepared and studied.&nbsp;<strong>Results:</strong> In study group cases, maximum weight of thyroid gland was 27.6 grams and minimum was 18.5 grams. In control group cases, maximum weight was 26.5 grams and minimum was 18.7 grams. The mean weight of the thyroid gland in the suicidal group was 22.21 grams and the standard deviation was 2.21 grams. Of 50 study cases, 15 (30%) revealed significant pathological findings and the rest 35 (70%) were histologically normal (Fig.6). 14 of these cases (28%) revealed focal lymphocytic thyroiditis (FLT) and only 1 case (2%) showed nodular goitre (NG).&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Thyroid gland, suicide, weight, depression, lymphocytic thyroiditis</p> AMANDEEP SINGH Copyright (c) 2 2 IDENTIFICATION OF CITES-LISTED Euphorbia royleana THROUGH DNA BARCODING TECHNOLOGY: A NEW FACET IN WILDILDLIFE FORENSICS https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1411 <p>Disorganized and chaotic collections of&nbsp;<em>Euphorbia&nbsp;</em>plant species from the wild resources is one of the major reason of its endangered status. According to CITES, the trade-in&nbsp;<em>Euphorbia royleana&nbsp;</em>species is prohibited under Appendix II. However, the trade continues unabated as current identification methods don't embrace potential to discriminate between closely related species.</p> <p>&nbsp;In the present study, DNA Barcoding method has been used to establish inter and intra-specific divergences of both matK and rbcL regions by using pair-wise genetic distance measurement methods for evaluating the maximum Barcoding gap.</p> <p>The&nbsp;<em>matk and rbcL</em>&nbsp;yielded 100% amplification and sequencing success rate to distinguish closely related species of&nbsp;<em>Euphorbia royleana&nbsp;</em>unambiguously.<em>&nbsp;The matk and rbcL showed</em><em>&nbsp;</em>an average of 0.031and 0.015 interspecific genetic distance divergence value respectively. Maximum number of species-specific SNPs was observed in&nbsp;<em>matK</em>&nbsp;sequences at seven consecutive sites, which could distinguish&nbsp;<em>Euphorbia royleana</em>&nbsp;from closely related species.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>The best candidate barcoding region to identify&nbsp;<em>Euphorbia royleana</em> found to be&nbsp;<em>matK&nbsp;</em>with a single-locus barcoding approach. Further, the species discrimination method was developed with the help of species-specific SNPs derived from the&nbsp;<em>matK </em>barcoding region to accurately authenticate&nbsp;<em>Euphorbia royleana</em> and provided 100 % species resolution.&nbsp;</p> Tina Sharma Mukesh K Thakar Copyright (c) 2 2 Way for Implementation of Vaccine on COVID-19 https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1410 <p>From December 2019 to December 2020, the world was covered by life-threatening COVID-19. Several research institutes and companies are working hard to find a vaccine for COVID-19. The SARS-CoV-2 vaccine will soon be available worldwide. The main objective of this article is to study how to implementation of Vaccine on COVID-19 infection by good management.</p> SAMIN SHAIKH Copyright (c) 2 2 Comparison of Dry needling and medicine ball on Gastrocnemius and soleus for the range of motion after the Ankle Inversion sprain: An experimental study. https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1403 <h1>Abstract</h1> <h1>Background: Ankle sprain is among the most severe sports injuries. Seventy-five per cent of this cause of damage is shocking to the inversion. Acute Ankle trauma is responsible for 10-30 per cent of sports popular in young athletes, which was of primary importance in athletes involved in running and jumping sports enhancing functional performance in patients with an acute ankle sprain.</h1> <p><strong>Purpose: </strong>The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of dry needling as compared to Medicine ball.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>60 Subjects fulfilling inclusion and exclusion criteria were selected for the study which was divided into two groups (n =30 in each group). Group A was treated with Medicine ball and RICE protocol and group B with Dry needling and RICE protocol. Here we are using cryotherapy at gastrocnemius&amp; soleus complex and lateral side of the ankle region for 10 min in both the groups. Treatment was given for 3 weeks.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The result of this study was analyzed by SPSS by using paired and unpaired T-test. Both groups had significant improvement but there were significant differences between the two groups in terms range of motion and Ankle function.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Medicine ball is more effective in reducing an improving range of motion, functional improvement of the ankle as compared to dry needling.</p> yasas chandra datla Copyright (c) 2 2 Response of forensic scientific community to Covid-19 pandemic. Review article. https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1397 <p>The purpose of this review was to show the impact of Covid-19 pandemic on forensic sciences, as reflected in the publications, which appeared in 2020. The review covered following topics: Response of legal medical experts on the increased daily workload in forensic practice and enhanced risk issues arising in forensic practice, particularly regarding autopsy, drugs used in Covid-19 therapy and their toxicological significance, and influence of Covid-19 pandemic on the profile and extent of substance abuse.</p> Maciej J. Bogusz Copyright (c) 2 2 Effectiveness of Deep transverse friction massage and kinesiotaping Versus Deep transverse friction massage and sham taping on pain, disability and range of motion in patients with latent trigger points of upper trapezius: An experimental study. https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1395 <p><strong>ABSTRACT:</strong>Latent trigger points&nbsp; do not cause local tenderness till direct pressure is applied . The purpose of the deep friction massage is that to maintain the mobility within soft tissues structures such as ligaments , muscles . This technique could be added with Kinesio tape to improve the range of motion .</p> <p>The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of deep transverse friction massage along with Kinesio-tape&nbsp; to compare with deep transverse friction massage added with sham taping on pain , disability , range of motion in patients with latent trigger point on upper trapezius muscle .</p> <p><strong>Methodology </strong>:&nbsp; 60 patients with latent trigger points on upper trapezius&nbsp; , age 18 to 30 years were selected &nbsp;. The patients divided into 2 groups A and B. Group A consisted of 30 patient who took deep transverse friction massage along with Kinesio taping . Group B consisted of 30 patients who received deep transverse friction massage added with sham taping. Each group had undergone 3 sessions per week for 2 weeks with 30 minutes per session ..</p> <p><strong>Statistical analysis</strong> : The result analyzed by SPSS software . The normality of the data tested by Shapirowilk test . Mann whitney U test used for group comparison&nbsp; and Wilkcoxon test applied for the within group comparison .</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong> : The deep transverse friction massage along with Kinesio taping had higher improvement of latent trigger point on upper trapezius&nbsp; as compared to deep transverse friction massage applied with sham taping .</p> Gurinder Singh Copyright (c) 2 2 Comparison of Dry needling and medicine ball on Gastrocnemius and soleus for the range of motion after the Ankle Inversion sprain: An experimental study. https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1394 <h1>Background: Ankle sprain is among the most severe sports injuries. Seventy-five per cent of this cause of damage is shocking to the inversion. Acute Ankle trauma is responsible for 10-30 per cent of sports popular in young athletes, which was of primary importance in athletes involved in running and jumping sports enhancing functional performance in patients with an acute ankle sprain.</h1> <p><strong>Purpose: </strong>The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of dry needling as compared to Medicine ball.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>60 Subjects fulfilling inclusion and exclusion criteria were selected for the study which was divided into two groups (n =30 in each group). Group A was treated with Medicine ball and RICE protocol and group B with Dry needling and RICE protocol. Here we are using cryotherapy at gastrocnemius&amp; soleus complex and lateral side of the ankle region for 10 min in both the groups. Treatment was given for 3 weeks.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The result of this study was analyzed by SPSS by using paired and unpaired T-test. Both groups had significant improvement but there were significant differences between the two groups in terms range of motion and Ankle function.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Medicine ball is more effective in reducing an improving range of motion, functional improvement of the ankle as compared to dry needling.</p> MD FIROJ ALAM MD FIROJ ALAM Copyright (c) 2 2 The Effect of Elevated Temperatures on Autosomal STR Profiling of DNA extracted from Human Fingernails. https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1392 <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Title</strong>: <strong>Effect of Elevated Temperatures on Autosomal STR Profiling of DNA extracted from Human </strong><strong>Fingern</strong><strong>ails. </strong></p> <p><strong>Objectives of the study</strong>:</p> <p>In this study we aim at assessing the impact of the elevated temperatures on the quality and quantity of DNA extracted from human fingernails. This will be served by obtaining the DNA profiles from human nails treated with different temperatures.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong></p> <p>DNA was extracted from all of samples using the QIAamp DNA Investigator kit, the extracted DNA was quantified using Quantifiler Duo DNA Quantification kit. PCR amplification (DNA Typing) of 15 autosomal STR markers were typed along with Amelogenin using the Applied Biosystems AmpFlSTR® Identifiler™ kit. Amplification products were analyzed according to the procedures described in the user's manual of the 16-capillary 3130XL Genetic Analyzer (Applied Biosystems).</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong></p> <p>The experimental work reveals that the concentration of the extracted DNA from human fingernails decreases gradually with elevating the temperature. The exposure of human nails to high temperatures (ranges from 50 to 150°C) results in the disappearance of some STR loci and partial STR profiles.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>:</p> <p>Human nails can be considered as a good source for extracting DNA and determining STR profiles. The exposure of human nails to high temperatures (ranges from 50 to 150°C) leads to the disappearance of some STR loci and partial disappearance of STR profiles so the nails are not suitable for identification purposes in great fires (1-2 hours long).</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Amany Abdel Hakim Moussa Copyright (c) 2 2 An Intelligent Model for Text Forensics from Arabic Twitter Posts https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1388 <p>The number of twitter users in Arab countries at a rapid pace of growth. As for the social networking platforms, they are a suitable environment for luring innocent users and commit different forms of crimes against them by cyber predators through claiming something they are not such as fake ID, age or gender targeting certain segments of the society. This have resulted in a huge number of cybercrimes including Phishing, harassment, cyber terrorism and many other forms. In this context, a number of different research efforts in the literature are available for English but very rare for Arabic texts. This article proposes an intelligent technique for enhancing text preprocessing that impacting the accuracy and performance of the classification task. The proposed model was evaluated against recently collected dataset from Arabic twitter users using different classifiers including naïve bays and neural networks to predict age attribute.</p> Hussein Y. AbuMansour Fahad S. Almekhlafi Copyright (c) 2020 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-07-25 2020-07-25 2 2 172 178 10.26735/ZTON7830 Issue Information https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1368 <p>Issue Information</p> Md Maidul Islam Copyright (c) 2 2 10.26735/EGUH5398 Criminal Trademark Protection in Algerian Law and Saudi Legal System https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1367 <p>To distinguish products and services from each other and to ensure the consumer or the buyer does not confuse them, create their own trademarks to promote their products, protect them from counterfeit and to attract customers and allow them to choose and differentiate between similar products and services available in the market.<br />Given the importance of the brand as a means of expressing the identity of the product or the service attributed to it and the identification of its owner, it was necessary to surround it with a certain number of legal guarantees in order to protect it so it is not subject counterfeiting or forgery.<br />This study, therefore, seeks to identify the mechanisms of legal protection prescribed for the brand in the Algerian and Saudi legislations, in order to determine the extent of the similarity between the two legislations. The study concludes that the Algerian and Saudi legislators took a positive stance by approving the criminal protection of the trademark and imposing deterrent penalties according to which they achieve the purpose of the punishment. O the other hand, they are reproached for attaching the protection to a formal procedure, which is the deposit of the mark or its registration as a condition for its protection.</p> <p>The study <br />Accordingly, this study believes it is necessary to reconsider the conditions of protection established for the trademark. It is not reasonable for the right holder to be deprived of their right just because they did not take a formal procedure.</p> Belhadj Belkheir Djama Malika Copyright (c) 2020 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-08-02 2020-08-02 2 2 222 240 10.26735/QSBB1745 Manifestations of Criminal Protection of the Right to be Forgotten https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1366 <table width="907"> <tbody> <tr> <td width="708"> <p>This paper examines one of the personal rights that have emerged from the activities of users on the internet and social media networks. This right has been termed as ‘the right to be forgotten’ and necessitates that a person can erase data and painful memories shared with others at some point in time on the internet.</p> <p>The paper tried to ascertain whether the available legal texts adequately establish the desired criminal protection for this type of right, which was not previously known. This required addressing the issue by dividing it into two sections: The first one was devoted to the conceptual framework of the right to be forgotten, and the second one was devoted to examining the legal framework for criminal protection of this right.</p> <p>The paper concluded that the criminal protection of the right to be forgotten is not satisfactory, because many countries have not passed laws on the protection of personal data and the entrenchment of the right to be forgotten.</p> <p>In addition, there is a weakness in the legal treatment of this right by the countries which issued these laws. Meaning that there is no direct and clear treatment in the texts of these laws which a clear and well-defined theory can be based upon whose provisions can be adhered to by all those involved in dealing with personal data and behavior through on the internet.</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Mustafa Khaled Copyright (c) 2020 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-07-15 2020-07-15 2 2 202 221 10.26735/YVUN6599 Forensic Identification of Air Freshener Components from the Toxicological Samples by GC-MS : A Case Report https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1365 <p>Indoor air fresheners are commonly used to deodorize rooms and cars. A case of air freshener intoxication by oral ingestion was forwarded to the forensic laboratory to determine the components and cause of death. <br />The presumptive tests were conducted for organo-phosphorus and organo-chloro compounds, formaldehyde, carbolic acid, drugs and aromatic compounds. Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS) was used as a confirmatory test for all these compounds. Presence of toxic substances like dichlorvos (2,2 di-chlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate), phenol, formaldehyde, naphthalene was confirmed in the air freshener that led to the person’s death. Laboratory analysis also confirmed the presence of alprazolam in the viscera as per case history. <br />The methodology used can be utilized as a reference for TLC and GC-MS based analysis of such cases</p> Puja Mukharjee Bhuvnesh Yadav Prem P. Singh Copyright (c) 2020 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-11-03 2020-11-03 2 2 177 182 10.26735/UEDU6910 Damaging Similarities in Highly Skilled Signature Simulations - Their Detection and Authorship https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1364 <p>Questioned document examination is a highly specialized and challenging field of study, because of the variety and complexity of problems that are referred to document examiners. Detection and identification of practiced simulated forgeries is an area of forensic science which requires the professional skill, capability and acumen of an examiner, every time he (or she) is called upon to examine and report a case of this nature. This is because firstly, the practiced simulations bear a striking semblance to the copied model and usually contains the handwriting features of the writers, the real person as well as the forger, though in varying degrees.Secondly, the skilled forger rarely leaves his own imprint in the forgery he committed. Most authorities on the subject have advised that the identification of authorship, in such cases, may be considered as an exception rather than the rule. Besides discussing and reviewing the work done in this regard, the authors have also presented and illustrated an intricate case study where the authorship of simulated signatures could be associated with the known handwriting of the suspected forger</p> Mahesh C. Joshi Mohinder Singh Trilochan Joshi Copyright (c) 2020 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-11-05 2020-11-05 2 2 189 200 10.26735/LULS7824 Anachronism in Fonts and Relative Dating of Computer Printed Documents: A Case Report https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1363 <p>In the field of forensic document examination, identification of fonts and their dates of release may provide a lead as to the relative age of computer printouts. Hence, fonts in a printout can be used as a means of evaluation of an anachronism or chronological inconsistency. Therefore, an anachronism betrays the fabricated nature of the questioned documents. <br />In the present case study, the traditional methodology of typescript matching coupled with an off-line digital tool were used in identifying pre-dated documents and disproving the genuineness of the documents in question. <br />The procedure adopted for differentiation, identification and confirmation of font(s) and years of release of fonts for commercial use is discussed.<br />Hence, in this case report it was safely concluded that the disputed agreement for sale could have been prepared on a later date than the purported date of execution i.e.1993 for the reason that the use of the “Comic Sans MS” font is an anachronism.</p> Loganathan Lingan Copyright (c) 2020 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-09-07 2020-09-07 2 2 183 188 10.26735/QZJS3127 Suicidal Cut-throat Fatalities: A Case Report from the Kingdom of Bahrain https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1362 <table width="907"> <tbody> <tr> <td width="708"> <p>Using a sharp tool by an individual to cause a severe cut-throat injury is considered an unusual method for suicide. Investigating such suicidal cases is challenging, as no witness is available only the crime scene findings, the autopsy finding and the history of the victim. In this case report, we demonstrate a rare suicidal case received by the directorate of forensic science evidence in the Kingdom of Bahrain.</p> <p>A 39-year-old male was found with a neck laceration in his house, a small knife was found near his body, autopsy showed a cut-throat injury almost completely encircling the neck. Multiple superficial wounds were found in the proximity and parallel to the large incised wound in the front and back of the neck suggesting that they were hesitation marks. A stab wound was found directly medial to the left nipple. The final report was based on death scene investigation, autopsy findings and forensic laboratory results concluding that the death was suicidal in nature.</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Mohammed Fouda Aqeela Abuidrees Copyright (c) 2020 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-09-07 2020-09-07 2 2 170 176 10.26735/WGBV2621 Molecular Depiction of Thirteen Indian Toxic Plants with ITS Markers https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1361 <table width="907"> <tbody> <tr> <td width="708"> <p>Plant identification is an overwhelming task due to different biological attributes and great diversity in plant species. In the absence of physical markers, molecular techniques have become useful for the identification of species of origin of medicinal plant seeds, pastes, and formulations of suspected plants.</p> <p>The ITS region of nuclear rRNA was amplified from thirteen different toxic plant species by using universal primer ITS 1 &amp; 4. Nucleotide sequences of all selected plants were submitted in NCBI and accession numbers were acquired.</p> <p>The results of this study give accurate identification of thirteen plant species and proved the ITS region of 18s-26s nuclear ribosome to be an important tool for phylogenetic analysis and species identification of plants. The sequence was aligned with top matched reference sequence and presented in Clustal Omega software for making a phylogenetic neighbour tree.</p> <p>The significance of these findings is paramount in forensic toxicology scenarios especially when fragmentary plant material is found in the stomach/intestine and its morphological identification becomes impossible. In these circumstances, the PCR based molecular technique surely plays a significant role in solving complicated forensic cases.</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Kiran Kumari Saurabh Bhargava Rajvinder Singh Copyright (c) 2020 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-09-07 2020-09-07 2 2 159 169 10.26735/YGUY5295 Validation of Half-Reaction Volumes of the Promega PowerPlex® Forensic Amplification Kits (PowerPlex® 18D Systems, PowerPlex ® 21System, PowerPlex® Fusion System and PowerPlex® Y23 System) in STR Analysis https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1360 <p>DNA amplification is known to be the most expensive step during forensic DNA analysis. This study evaluated the half-reaction amplification protocol (12.5 µL PCR product) using DNA amplification kits from Promega PowerPlex® (PowerPlex® 18D System, PowerPlex ®21System, PowerPlex® Fusion System and PowerPlex® Y23 System), which might aid in reducing sample analysis cost by half and allow the analysis of more samples. <br />A sensitivity study (15 samples) along with testing of various blood stain samples (n=100) that were submitted to the Medico-Legal Directorate laboratory for DNA testing was accomplished to compare the DNA profiles resulting from half-reaction volume procedure to those with full-reaction volume procedure, using three differed methods along with standard protocol to evaluate the effect of half reaction volume with some variables. <br />Results demonstrated the use of half-reaction amplification protocol preceded by washing step for all aforementioned DNA amplification kits gave a robust and reliable amplification result that aid to increase the number of samples analyzed and decreased the test cost for each kit without compromising the quality of 3DNA profiles obtained.</p> Hanan K. Mahmood Nadia F. Salman Dhurgham H. Hasan Khaleefah M. Salih Maryam A. Sadiq Basma T. Mohammad Maryam K. Mohammed Sarwa M. Nahi Sara S. Baqir Copyright (c) 2020 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-11-05 2020-11-05 2 2 152 158 10.26735/QFSI2426 The Magnitude, Clinical Presentation and Consequences of Patients with Burn Injuries Admitted to Tertiary Care Hospital, Kurunegala, Sri Lanka: A Prospective Analysis https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1359 <p>This prospective analysis is based on clinical forensic examinations and clinical case records of the victims who sustained burns and were admitted during a one-year period since 2017. <br />Of the 90 patients (34 children and 56 adults), 54 % were male with ages ranging from 1 month to 80 years. Males below the age of 20 years (48 %) were highly vulnerable. Education status revealed that most of the patients have an education level below O/L representing 52 % (Ordinary Level/ O/L is similar to the General Certificate of Secondary Education/ GCSE in Cambridge Education System in United Kingdom) and the majority were married (52%). Scalds were seen in 52 %, while flame burns in 28 % cases. Most of the incidents had taken place at home (92%). Burn injuries were most frequently observed on upper extremities (47 %) and the majority were of first degree in nature. Furthermore, this study revealed that 57 % recovered without any complications, while 34 % resulted in scarring or disfigurement. <br />It was highlighted that children are the most vulnerable to in sustaining burns, especially with hot water in domestic settings. The study recommends increasing awareness among parents/guardians regarding safe handling of hot water to minimize such incidents.</p> Udukubhura D. G. Dissanayaka Amal N. Vadysinghe Yapa M. G. I. Banda Thenuwara H. I. Gayathree Copyright (c) 2020 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-10-29 2020-10-29 2 2 141 151 10.26735/GJME7901 Succession of Dipteran Fly Maggots on Poisoned Pig Cadavers at Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1358 <table width="907"> <tbody> <tr> <td width="708"> <p>Dipteran maggots found on a cadaver are used to estimate its time of death but the time may be incorrect if death occurred due to ingestion of poison. Decomposition of a zinc phosphide intoxicated and strangulated pigs (Sus scrofa Linn.) were evaluated in this study.</p> <p>They were deposited in a forest during the rainy season and repeated during the dry season at Awka, Nigeria. Decomposition duration and stages of decay of the pig cadavers were recorded. Maggots found on the cadavers were collected, reared to adulthood and were identified. Similar maggot samples were assessed for residues of zinc and phosphorus with an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer.</p> <p>Both pig cadavers completely decomposed within 10 and 14 days during the rainy and dry seasons, respectively. Appearance and emergence of three dipteran maggot families were observed on the cadavers in a successional pattern. Zinc and phosphorus residues were detected in the maggots from the poisoned cadavers while they were not detected in the maggots from the strangled cadavers.</p> <p>The three dipteran maggot families are recommended as a valuable tool in forensic entomology for the estimation of elapsed time of a questionable death and the dipteran bodies would also be useful for toxicological analysis.</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Maduamaka C. Abajue Sylvanus C. Ewuim Cosmas A. Uhuo Copyright (c) 2020 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-11-03 2020-11-03 2 2 140 152 10.26735/VLTV5183 A Novel Approach for Forensic Differentiation of Grass Stains Using ATR FT-IR Spectroscopy and Chemometrics https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1357 <p>Grass evidence often encountered at the crime scene, helps in establishing the primary as well as secondary crime scenes. Due to the limited quantity and intricate nature of samples, there is a need for fast, sensitive and reliable techniques for the effective analysis of this vital evidence. In the current study, an attempt is made to study the feasibility of ATR FT-IR in combination with chemometric tools for chemical characterization and species differentiation of grass stains. <br />Ten different grass species belonging to three subfamilies, Panicoideae, Chlorodoidae, and Bambusoideae, were collected and analyzed by using the ATR FT-IR spectroscopy combined with the PLSR chemometric tool. <br />Results showed a clear difference between samples of Panicoideae, Chlorodoidae, and Bambusoideae subfamilies, and between species of each subfamily. To analyse the performance of the classification model, a set of 10 unknown/blind samples (unknown to the analyst) were randomly selected from the training dataset and all unknown/blind samples were accurately assigned in their corresponding group. <br />ATR FT-IR spectroscopy requires minimal sample preparation and can be successfully used as an eco-friendly, non-destructive, and reliable alternative to other existing methods.</p> Jaskirandeep K. Jossan Sweety Sharma Priyanka Jindal Rajinder Singh Copyright (c) 2020 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-11-05 2020-11-05 2 2 128 139 10.26735/QMFZ6158 Potential and Accuracy of Hand Length and Hand Breadth in Sex Determination: An Insight into Hausa Population of Nigeria https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1355 <p>The identification of an individual in mass disasters and traffic accidents is a fundamental goal in forensic investigations. However, it is suggested that every population needs anthropological reference data. The objectives of this study were to determine the potential and accuracy of hand length and hand breadth in sex determination among the Hausa population of Nigeria. <br />Random sampling was employed to select 204 male and 194 female subjects aged 18-30 years. Hand length and hand breadth were measured using standard protocols. Two-sample t-test, binary logistic regression, receiver operating characteristics curve, and Youden’s index were used for determining sex using hand dimensions. Posterior probability and likelihood ratio were used to determine the favor odds of each category of hand dimension in sex discrimination.<br />A significant sexual dimorphism was observed in hand length and hand breadth with higher mean values in males. The variance of sex explained by hand parameters ranges from 38.50/51.35% (lower/upper limits) to 52.98/70.66%, which were exhibited by right hand length and left hand breadth respectively. The overall prediction and percentage accuracy of sex discrimination ranges between 80.40 to 86.70 % that were exhibited by right hand length and handbreadth respectively. We observed that left hand breadth exhibited higher Younden’s index with an area under curve (AUC) ranging from 91.60% to 96.05%. We found that hand length of &gt; 189.99 mm was indicative of male origin and hand breadth of &gt; 79.99 mm was indicative of male origin. <br /><br /></p> Magaji G. Taura Lawan H. Adamu Abdullahi Y. Asuku Kabiru B. Umar Musa Abubakar Isyaku I. Kibiya Abdulrashid Sunusi Copyright (c) 2020 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-09-07 2020-09-07 2 2 118 127 10.26735/VMOY2714 Description of Rare Genetic Variants Discovered with Promega PowerPlex® Forensic Amplification Kits during STR analysis of Routine Paternity and Kinship Cases https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1354 <p>Short Tandem Repeats (STR) have been widely used to create a discriminating DNA profile during the forensic investigation of a crime. The Paternity and Kinship Division at Medico-legal Directorate (MLD)/ Baghdad, provides a DNA fingerprinting service for paternity and kinship requests from different courts of law and police departments from across the country. Several rare variants were observed during DNA analysis such as rare off-ladder alleles, tri-allelic pattern as well as allele dropout. Variants that have been transmitted among family members were investigated in this study.<br />During the period between 2008 to 2019, 38309 samples have been analyzed in the Paternity and Kinship Laboratories for DNA profiling to resolve the referred cases. DNA profiles found to have unusual STR patterns (off-ladder, tri-allelic pattern, inter-loci variable were analyzed and documented).<br />A total of 17 variants were observed which were as shared among family members. Rare off-ladder alleles (9 cases + inter-loci variant 2 cases), as well as 6 cases of tri-allelic patterns were recorded. <br />The presence of each type of these variants among family members proves that these variations are of genetic origin. They also represent rare genetic variants specific to the Iraqi populations that could be used for the establishment of a new Iraqi DNA database, which might be useful for genealogical studies as well as in terms of resolving familial, social, and moral disputes.</p> Hanan K. Mahmood Nadia F. Salman Dhurgham H. Hasan Khalifah M. Salih Majeed A. Sabbah Aamera J. Alnima Copyright (c) 2020 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-09-07 2020-09-07 2 2 111 117 10.26735/PISP6332 Frequency of Mamelons in Relation to Age, Gender and Occlusion among the Saudi Population https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1353 <table width="907"> <tbody> <tr> <td width="708"> <p>This observational study aimed to determine the prevalence and identify the presence of mamelons while simultaneously correlating the age, gender, and bite relationship of the subjects.</p> <p>Total sample size included 518 patients, both males and females. Study participants were selected by systematic random sampling using the randomizer.org website. Clinical examination as well as the presence of mamelons on each jaw and the relationship of anterior teeth such as open bite, functional contact, or not were screened by trained personnel performed by using a mouth mirror, latex gloves, a dental probe, and a dental chair light.</p> <p>256 (49.4%) males and 262 (50.5%) females participated in this study. It was observed that the presence of mamelons was more frequent among females (84.7%) rather than males (79.3%). During the first decade of life, the percentage of mamelons is higher, irrespective of gender. However, the frequency and percentage of mamelons start to decrease with age. Mamelons are more prevalent in an open bite occlusion (90.0%) followed by a non-functional occlusion, i.e., 81.7% (edge to edge relation) and then a functional occlusion, i.e., 75.5%.</p> <p>Persistence of mamelons in either gender is higher up to the age of 25 years, afterward mamelons dramatically reduce. Additionally, mamelons appear more in maxillary incisors than mandible incisors.</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Munther Alalowi Nouf Al-Jhany Copyright (c) 2020 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-09-07 2020-09-07 2 2 106 110 10.26735/VGLP5383 Life after Death, Interpreting the Enigmas: A Forensic Review https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1350 <p>The phenomena of Post-Mortem changes have been a topic that has been extensively studied for ages and scientists and researchers have devised different methodologies to interpret Post-Mortem Interval (PMI). The study of Post-Mortem changes is important as they can help an investigator to determine the time since death &amp; the cause of death. The aim of this review is to discuss the process of decomposition and their various stages, the contributing factors that affect decomposition and understand the various classes of organisms ranging from Flies to Vertebrate Scavengers that can help estimate the time since death and the degree of decomposition. Moreover, the review talks about methods for estimation of Post-Mortem Interval and related complications. This detailed review is all about the phenomena’s that are involved after death and its contributing factors and can be utilized as a reference for future studies. This article also seeks to determine how efficient is it to estimate the PMI and what are its limitations.</p> Prashant Singh Nandini Gupta Ravi Rathi Copyright (c) 2 2 Juvenile Terrorism in India https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1349 <p><em>Objectives</em>: Perpetrators of terrorist offence often tend to be young children under the age of 18years. They are found engaged in a terrorist activity in different capacity. Terrorist groups often involve such children directly into terrorist act. Available literature has shown that children are more vulnerable than adults in the violent terrorist act owing to the lack of maturity and judgmental capacity. They are also found to have low level of guilt due to under arousal of autonomic nervous system activity. <em>Methods</em> : In the present study 30 juvenile terrorist were brought to Forensic Science Laboratory, Bangalore from different parts of the country i.e Maharashtra, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. They were subjected to polygraph examination to measure changes in physiological parameters related to crime under investigation. <em>Results and Conclusion</em> : Factors such as the age, education, family background, socio economic status, addictions were found to be having influence on the lower arousal of autonomic nervous system. The need of the hour is to identify the causes of juvenile terrorism and to create a reformative environment for the adolescent who conflicts with the law. In the present study, an attempt has made to explore psycho physiological factors underlying juvenile terrorism.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: <em>Forensic Psychology, Psychophysiology, Juvenile terrorist, , Polygraph,&nbsp; ANS , </em></strong></p> Yaseen MG Copyright (c) 2 2 Forensic Discrimination of Petroleum Products Using Attenuated Total Reflectance–Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) Spectrophotometry and Chemometrics https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1338 <p>Petroleum products are commonly used as fuel in world. These substances are frequently encountered, as evidence, in forensic investigations of arson and illegal adulteration. In such cases, therefore, it becomes important to ascertain the brand and quality of a given sample/s. These investigations also warrant discrimination between petroleum products of different brands to identify manufacturers and sources. In such cases, Attenuated total reflectance–Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectrophotometry has proved to be a useful technique over other conventional methods such as GC-FID or GC-MS due to its simplicity, rapid, cost-effective and non-destructive nature. In the present work, an attempt has been made to classify neat samples of diesel and petrol-based on their brands and quality using ATR-FTIR spectrophotometry and chemometric techniques such as Principal component analysis (PCA) and Linear discriminant analysis (LDA). 82 samples of diesel and 78 samples of petrol of 3 different brands (Bharat petroleum, Hindustan petroleum, Indian oil) and of 2 different qualities (normal and premium) were collected from different cities of Punjab state of Northern India. PCA showed significant classification for diesel samples, however, significant classification was not observed for petrol samples. LDA correctly classified 97.22% and 74.4% of diesel and petrol samples based on their brands. However, the accuracy of the classification of petrol samples based on quality was only 64.1%. It is evident that ATR-FTIR is a non-destructive, rapid, cost-effective, simple to use, efficient, and accurate technique that can be used effectively in combination with chemometric tools for the differentiation of petroleum products.</p> Gurvinder Singh Bumbrah Sandeep Brar Praveen Kumar Yadav Rakesh Mohan Sharma Copyright (c) 2 2 المملكة العربية السعودية الرياض https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1332 <p>.</p> محمد المصعبي Copyright (c) 2 2 المملكة العربية السعودية الرياض https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1331 <p>تسجيل في داراسة العوم الاءدلة الجنائية والطب الشرعي&nbsp;</p> محمد المصعبي Copyright (c) 2 2 Pregabalin toxicity and its correlation with the blood concentration: Experimental study https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1188 <p>Increasing evidence demonstrates that Pregabalin (PRG) affects body tissues other than neuronal tissue. Its overdose toxic effects were evaluated in rats. PRG was given orally in doses 4g and 2.5g/kg for one day and in doses 50mg and 20mg/Kg for 21 days. There was no significant difference (P &gt; 0.05) between the PRG intoxicated groups compared to the control group in the assessed hematological parameters, serum albumin, blood urea nitrogen, and creatinine. PRG toxicity altered body organ indices, particularly at high doses, while sustained PRG toxicity lessened considerably the bodyweight of rats. Serum aspartate aminotransferase, white blood cell count, and platelet count were the most dramatically affected laboratory parameters (P &lt; 0.05), particularly with a PRG dose of 50 mg/kg. The increase in oral dose was followed by a rise in the concentration of PRG in blood. Histopathological analysis indicated mild to moderate hepatic congestion with cellular infiltration and renal tubular necrosis with concurrent administration of multiple toxic PRG doses. Consumption of high doses of Pregabalin over a long period can experience hepatorenal toxicity with clinical consequences.</p> Samah Ibrahim Copyright (c) 2 2 Comparative morphological and radiological study of dental implants for human identification https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1324 <p>Dental evidence has been commonly used for forensic identification because of its low cost and uniqueness to individual. Dental implants being resistant to mechanical and thermal insult can aid in identification process. The study was undertaken to determine the class and individual characteristics of dental implants morphologically and radiographically. The study showed that dental implants could be classified morphologically and radiographically by form of company type. Dental implants are used as an important aid in the forensic identification due to their ability to survive higher temperatures even after incineration.</p> Abraham Johnson Copyright (c) 2 2 Macroscopic cranial suture closure in an adult population: is it reliable for estimating age? https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1318 <p><strong>Background</strong>:-</p> <p>Age estimation is one of the important parameters for estimation of biological profile of an individual. Generally speaking, estimation of age of an individual whether living or dead is very important in Medicolegal and forensic scenario. The objective of the present study was to observe the chronology and pattern of union of cranial sutures namely coronal and lambdoid and to find out the relationship between closure of cranial suture and age of the deceased. An attempt was also made to see the applicability of Acsadi and Nemeskeri method in an Indian population. A total of 193 adult calvaria (133 males and 60 females) were studied from the autopsy cases. The extent of obliteration was studied ectocranially and endocranially in the two main sutures of the calvarium i.e. coronal and lambdoid.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>:-</p> <p>The results indicate that a strong positive correlation of ectocranial with endocranial suture closure is found in the age group of 30-39 years for right coronal, left coronal, while age group of 60-69 years shows a strong positive correlation for lambdoid sutures. This has also been confirmed in the study that the cranial suture obliteration starts endocranially and proceeds towards ectocranial surface. Statistically insignificant sex differences exist in suture closure.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>:-</p> <p>The coronal and lambdoid sutures were closed in the age group of above 70 years with mean values of 3.54 for coronal and 3.7 for lambdoid suture. Acsadi and Nemeskeri’s method was found to be applicable to the Indian population for determination of age from cranial sutures.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Nilesh Keshav Tumram Soniya Parchake Arun Kasote Meena Meshram Copyright (c) 2 2 Dental age estimation using Demirjian and Chaillet-Demirjian method: A Comparative Study https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1312 <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Forensic odontology is the proper handling, examination, and evaluation of dental evidence, which will be presented in the interest of justice. Dental age estimation is one of the essential tool in identifying the human remains in various criminal cases and very mutilated victims of a mass disaster.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The aim of the present study was to compare and test the chronological age and estimated dental age difference using Demirjian and Chaillet-Demirjian method in the Maharashtra Population. A total&nbsp; 96 orthopantomogram radiographs aged between 6-18 of Maharashtra population were evaluated using Demirjian and Chaillet-Demirjian methods. Statistical analysis was performed using RStudio software.</span> <span style="font-weight: 400;">The mean difference between chronological age and estimated dental age was ranged from -0.73-1.3 years for males and -0.9-1 year for females in Demirjian method, whereas from - 0.57-2.13 years for males and -1.25-0.49 years for females in Chaillet-Demirjian method. Both the methods show a strong positive correlation between chronological age and estimated dental age. A one way ANOVA test shows</span> <span style="font-weight: 400;">statistically significance differences for estimated dental age by both Demirjian (F = 40.63, p &lt; 0.05) and Chaillet-Demirjian method (F=7.29, p&lt; 0.05).&nbsp;</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Study revealed that the Demirjian method found to be more suitable than the Chaillet-Demirjian method in the Maharashtra population.</span></p> Archana Mahakalkar Lina Bhoyar Rashmi Kulkarni Ashita Kalaskar Dhiraj Naik Copyright (c) 2 2 DEVELOPMENTS IN THE FIRE DEBRIS ANALYSIS BY GC-MS https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1309 <p>Arson is a very serious crime that affects not only the society through cost, property damage but human and animal lives therefore it is important that the methods and technologies applied by fire investigators for the fire debris analysis should have a high degree of reliability, sensitivity, as well as be subject to rigorous quality control and assurance. Previously Gas chromatography was traditionally used to analyse the fire debris to detect the inflammable oil residues but conventional gas chromatographic analysis of highly contaminated fire debris samples often gives ambiguous results with respect to the presence or otherwise of an accelerant basically due to interfering compounds produced by the pyrolysis of the matrix material itself. GC-MS largely overcomes this problem of background interference. <strong><a href="https://www.omicsonline.org/open-access/development-and-validation-of-a-gcms-with-sim-method-for-the-determination-of-trace-levels-of-methane-sulfonyl-chloride-as-an-impu-2155-9872-1000316.php?aid=73098">GC-MS</a></strong>&nbsp;is highly efficacious and multifaceted techniques with different scientific applications to fascinate the forensic investigations.</p> Poonam Yadav Copyright (c) 2 2 “ A NEW POWDER METHOD FOR DEVELOPMENT OF LATENT FINGERPRINT ” https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1310 <p><strong>Abstract:- </strong></p> <p>Different powder methods have been accounted for the development of latent fingerprints on various surfaces in the literature, such as lead, titanium oxide, Rhodamine B dye etc., all powders mentioned had been used for the development of latent fingerprints. &nbsp;Some of these methods using powders when exposed to humans, may lead to health problems, and also these methods are expensive in nature. Current study is proposing a new powder method, which is simple, nontoxic to human health, cheap in nature, and as well can be utilized for the development of latent fingerprints on various contrast surfaces.</p> <p>This method is simple and easily preparable, it's characterized by being in powder form, and also available in different colors, so it can be used for the development of latent fingerprints at the crime scene.&nbsp; In this study we used different soil colors for the development of latent fingerprints on various contrast surfaces such as plastic, aluminum surface, motor bike painted area, car bonnet, CPU, hanke, glass, table (sunmica-glossy), cotton, skin, CD and transparency. we successfully developed latent fingerprints on all the surfaces except skin and cotton by using this method. Soil is adsorbed well on latent fingerprint residues and shows clear latent fingerprint ridges; In the future it can be utilized at crime scene for the development of latent fingerprints.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Dinesh Dinesh Copyright (c) 2 2 PATTERN OF FILLING UP OF MEDICAL CERTIFICATE OF CAUSE OF DEATH (MCCD) AT A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL DURING COVID PANDEMIC: A MATTER OF CONCERN” https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1304 <p>Medical Certification of Cause of Death- MCCD, plays an important role in deciding the direction of public health programs, provide a feedback system for future implementation of health policies, health planning and management of epidemiological studies, medico-legal investigations, census studies, assessment of effectiveness of public health programs. As &nbsp;Covid- 19 produces so much confusion into the mind of treating doctor as how to give cause of death in MCCD. Certification and coding of death related to Covid-19 is essential for smooth contact tracing afterwards.&nbsp; Our study focused on the analysis of MCCD proformas filled up by residents and doctors and common mistakes committed while filling it while treating the Covid patient at wards. This is a retrospective, cross sectional study carried out at Covid-19 dedicated hospital associated with a Medical College situated in Rajasthan. The period of this study is three month of early Covid-19 pandemic time from 1<sup>st</sup> April 2020 to 30<sup>th</sup> June 2020, in which a total of 199 deaths were reported. We could study a total of 152 certificates (76.38. %) out of total 199 deaths as in rest of cases, the MCCD was not attached as deceased was brought dead to hospital. The analytical result of study revealed some major errors like immediate cause of death was Covid-19 positive with cardiovascular arrest. The conclusion of our study highlights an urgent need for imparting extra efforts towards awareness, importance to undergraduates and postgraduate training. Also emphasis training of senior and junior faculty with other treating doctors.</p> Dr sachin meena Copyright (c) 2 2 “Detection of 11-Nor-9-carboxy-Δ⁹-Tetrahydrocannabinol Metabolite in the Pubic Hair of Drug Abuser by Target Ion GC-MS Method” https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1299 <p><strong>Abstract-: </strong></p> <p>Cannabis substance abuse are widely addicted across the world. In drug of abuse cases hair play an important role to identify drug of abuse and consumption drugs history. However, scalp hair may not available in every case of drug abuse so that other body hairs play an important role in forensic toxicological analysis. In this study attempt has been made to use pubic hair as an alternative specimen for detection of 11-Nor-9-carboxy-Δ⁹-Tetrahydrocannabinol metabolite of cannabis abuser using target ion GC-MS method.</p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em></p> Dinesh Dinesh Copyright (c) 2 2 Forensic DNA examination in the pandemic era of COVID 19: An Indian Perspective https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1298 <p>The extremely high nature of transmissibility and severity of infection due to the novel Corona virus is a serious threat to mankind. The letter reports a caution for forensic DNA experts in the era of COVID infection from the Indian perspective. Cases are routinely transported without any specific guidelines to the laboratories. The forensic DNA testing laboratories are mostly facing financial constraints on one hand and on another hand, most of the laboratories are facing huge pendency of cases. Therefore, this is high time to formulate a clear guideline for the handling of biological material from receiving to processing in the laboratory is such a pandemic situation.</p> Pankaj Shrivastava R.K> Kumawat Copyright (c) 2 2 سشسشس https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1118 <p>سيسي</p> muaz elshikh Copyright (c) 2 2 Forensic analysis of wild toxic and edible Amanita mushrooms by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1289 <p>Since ages, foraging and consumption of wild mushrooms is practiced in different parts of the world. Despite having various health benefits, few mushroom species are known for causing toxicity as well. In forensic casework conditions, samples from mushroom poisoning cases could be found in dried or powdered form. So, it becomes necessary to characterize mushroom species for the identification purposes. In the present study, volatile fraction of five wild toxic and edible <em>Amanita</em> mushroom species (<em>Amanita muscaria, Amanita pantherina, Amanita caesarea, Amanita subglobosa </em>and<em> Amanita porphyria</em>) was analyzed so as to identify compounds for the characterization of selected mushroom species. The secondary metabolites present in the volatile fraction were assessed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The obtained volatile fractions were broadly classified into chemical classes: alcohols, acids, esters, aldehydes, ketones, nitrogen-containing compounds and miscellaneous. Some compounds such as octadecanoic acid, 9-octadecenoic acid (z)-, ethane, 1-chloro-1-fluoro- were the most abundant. The present approach using GC-MS aims to detect a large number of compounds to get a fingerprint of each sample for the discrimination purpose. Also, this work is a first study on the forensic analysis of volatile composition <em>Amanita</em> mushroom species from the north-western Himalayan region of India.&nbsp;</p> Rajinder Singh Copyright (c) 2 2 Chemical Method to Recycling Slag Steel Powder and use it in Showing Finger Print https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1287 <p>Four samples of west iron slag powder in different concentration (sample 1 is poured iron slag powder, sample 2 is 20 of slag and 2.5g of Na OH, sample 3 is 30 of slag and 5g of Na OH and sample 4 is 40 of slag and 7.5g of Na OH) with the chemical method<strong>.</strong> The basic component of all samples was identified by the SEM-EDS detector device and the most important elements found in all samples are (O, S, Zn, and Na) and the items have disappeared (Mg, Mn, Ba, Al, and Cr) than the pour sample. The crystal structure of all samples characterized at room temperature using X-ray diffractometer, and according to Scherer's equation the calculation average crystal size of all samples and it became (for sample 1 is pour iron slag powder equal 9.3 nm, for sample 2 is 20 of slag and 2.5g of Na OH equal 7.0 nm, for sample 3 is 30 of slag and 5g of Na OH equal 10.3 nm and for sample 4 is 40 of slag and 7.5g of Na OH equal 12.0 nm). Applied all samples that made in fingerprinting showing.</p> Abdelazem Mohamed Copyright (c) 2 2 Reading in the book “Scientific Documentation: A Guide to Scientific Publishing https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1277 <p>This research sheds light on the book "The Scientific<br>Publication Guide" prepared by the American Psychological<br>Association in the English language, and translated into<br>Arabic by Professor Dr. Dhiyab Al-Badayneh.<br>The book dealt with all the criteria, requirements and<br>principles of publishing followed in the association's<br>journals. The researcher pointed out that despite what was<br>written about the principles of scientific research and its<br>requirements in the Arabic language; the Arab Library still<br>needs specialized evidence dealing with the standards,<br>requirements and publishing principles in a number of<br>scientific disciplines to put an end in the differences in views<br>followed in the conditions for publication, its origins, and<br>requirements in many Arab publishers.</p> Mahmoud M. S. Saed Copyright (c) 2020-08-10 2020-08-10 2 2 1492 1499 10.26735/16586794.2019.042 Study of palatal rugae patterns and its use in sex and ethnicity identification in a sample of adult Egyptians and Malaysians https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1259 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Palatal rugoscopy is the use of palatal rugae for identification of unknown persons. The majority of the population in Egypt consists of Egyptian people. However, some Malaysian people live in Alexandria city of Egypt for the purpose of education. So in case of mass disaster, there is a critical need for a reliable and easy method to differentiate between Malaysians and Egyptians.<strong> Aim: </strong>Study palatal rugae patterns in two diverse populations; Egyptians and Malaysians and its relation to sex and population difference.<strong> Subjects: </strong>Eighty students of Alexandria Faculty of Dentistry; forty Egyptians (20 females and 20 males) and forty Malaysians (20 males and 20 females). The age ranged 18-30 years. <strong>Results: </strong>Significant difference was noted between Malaysian males and females according to total number of rugae on both sides. Malaysians had significantly higher total rugae number on both sides than Egyptians. Curved shape was the predominant shape in the total sample. Significant difference was detected between Egyptians and Malaysians according to the predominant palatal rugae direction on both left and right sides. Egyptian females had significantly higher percentage of absent unification than Egyptian males. Linear regression models for sex and ethnicity identification were built up.</p> heba hussein nermeen rady Copyright (c) 2 2 A case Report: Forensic DNA analysis identified the culprit of murder and sexual abuse of minor https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1257 <p>A report under section 7 of the Anti-Terrorism Act, 1997 was registered at Police Station of District Faisalabad, Pakistan. A 7-8 years old boy went to a nearby grocery store and was missed. The eye witnesses reported that the boy was seen with accused on a motor bike last time. Naked dead body of the victim tied with clothing was found from sugarcane fields.&nbsp; On autopsy, three incised wounds on neck cutting trachea, jugular veins and abdomen resulting in protrusion of the gut were found. Post mortem medico legal examination was indicative of sexual abuse of the child prior to murder. &nbsp;Forensic DNA analysis demonstrated the seminal material on anal swabs of the victim belongs to suspect. The same DNA profile was also present in the nail swabs of the victim.</p> Nasir Siddique Copyright (c) 2 2