Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM <p style="text-align: justify;">The Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences &amp; Forensic Medicine (AJFSFM) is an open access (CC BY-NC), peer-reviewed, and free of charge journal dedicated to the development and application of forensic science and forensic medical knowledge and research for the purpose of law and justice across the globe. The AJFSFM is an official publication (ISSN 1658-6786) of the Arab Society for Forensic Sciences and Forensic Medicine (ASFSFM) and is published biannually by Naif Arab University for Security Sciences (NAUSS), Riyadh – Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.</p> Naif Arab University for Security Sciences en-US Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine 1658-6786 <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;You must read and accept the copyright terms and conditions(<a href="https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/Copyrights" target="_blank" rel="noopener">click here for&nbsp;copyright terms</a>).</p> Mitochondrial DNA Haplotypes, Haplogroups and Variants in Fulanis and Yorubas of Ilorin, Kwara State and North Central of Nigeria https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1732 <p>mtDNA is maternally inherited. It has higher mutation rates than nuclear DNA with its polymorphic sites mainly located in the non-coding hypervariable regions I (HVI) and II (HVII) of the D-loop control region. HVI and HVII haplogroups are population-specific signatures on the human mitochondrial phylogenetic tree and are of relevance to phylogenetic and forensic studies. Nigeria comprises of over 250 ethnic groups, out of which the Fulanis and Yorubas are arguably the second and fourth largest ethnic groups respectively. This study examined mtDNA haplotypes, mtDNA haplogroups and mtDNA variants in Fulanis and Yorubas resident in Ilorin, Kwara State and North Central of Nigeria.&nbsp;</p> <p>Samples of unrelated 25 Fulani males and 25 Yoruba males whose ethnicity were confirmed by three generations (paternal and maternal) were collected with informed consent. Non-coding Hypervariable regions 1 and 2 of mtDNA were analysed.</p> <p>mtDNA haplogroups profiling showed Fulanis with L0a1a2, L1b1a, L2c, L2c2, L2c2a1, L2c2b, L3b3, L3e1b1, L3f1b and L3k1; while Yorubas had L1b1a10, L1b2a, L1c2b, L1c3c, L2d and L3d1b3a. L1b, L2a1, L2b, L3b1a, L3b1b, L3d1a1b, L3e2a1b1 and L3e2b mtDNA haplogroups were common to Fulanis and Yorubas.</p> <p>Fulanis and Yorubas belong to mtDNA L0 – L3 haplogroups previously established for West Africa.</p> Adelaja Akinlolu Copyright (c) 3 1 سلطات ، الضبط الاداري ،كورونا سلطات الضبط الاداري في زمن الكورونا ( المملكة العربية السعودية نموذجا) https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1731 <p>سلطات الضبط الإداري في زمن الكورونا ( المملكة العربية السعودية نموذجا)&nbsp;</p> <p>أتطرق في هذا البحث إلى عدة تساؤلات وهي : :</p> <p>1- هل جائحة كورونا ظرف طارىْتدخل في نطاق أحكام الظروف الطارئة ؟ام قوة قاهرة تندرج في ظلال هذا التكييف5&nbsp;</p> <p>2- ما هو الفرق بين الظروف الطارئة من حيث الطبيعة والاثر ؟&nbsp;</p> <p>3- ماهي التدابير الاحترازية التي اتخذتها المملكة العربية السعودية كنموذج احتذت به جميع دول العالم في مواجهة هذه الجائحة ؟&nbsp;</p> عماد ملوخية Copyright (c) 3 1 Improper Allegations of the Mother with Delusional Disorder: Case Report https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1729 <p>Background: Child sexual abuse is a public health problem worldwide. When a court carries out an investigation about this subject, they are likely to ask for a genital examination report which enlights whether sexual contact exists or not from the physicians. Forensic medicine specialist prepares an expert report for helping to the justice. Any suspicion about sexual abuse of a child should be evaluated prudently. On the other hand, it is open to wrong and unnecessary applications of sceptical parent who suffers from a mental illness.</p> <p>Case Presentation: Three siblings who are 10, 6, 6 years old were registered with our Child Protective Service (CPS) three times in sixteen months with the allegation of sexual abuse is noticed. Either genital examinations of the children were normal or mother’s behaviours and speech was found so sceptical. Therefore, it was reported to the legal authorities, immediately. After that, the mother of siblings was consulted to an adult psychiatrist whether she has a mental illness which cause suspicion of being sexually abused of her children or not. After the consultation she was diagnosed with Delusional Disorder (DD) with the persecutory subtype.</p> <p>Conclusions: In this case, it was revealed that maternal mental illness can give rise to improperly claims. Parental mental status always should be considered.</p> Serbülent KILIC Copyright (c) 3 1 The accidental domestic infantile vital submersion, what responsibility? (one autopsy case). https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1727 <p>submersion is a forensic form of mechanical asphyxia, known for a long time. Its accidental form is the most common of the forensic forms, usually occurring in summer. But when it occurs in winter and in children becomes doubtful. The circumstances of this infantile winter submersion for investigators remain difficult to highlight when it occurs at home.</p> <p>here, in our autopsy case, it is about a 10-year-old girl submerged in a bucket of water in the kitchen of the house of the domicile whose disappearance of a few hours caused a controversy in the family. But this girl has not suffered physical, sexual assault, medication or a moral torture !?.</p> <p>&nbsp;when the girl was discovered in the water, the police made their preliminary investigation in favor of a domestic accident. In the autopsy room our team confirmed the isolated accidental vital submersion. But the forensic form of death remains to be confirmed by the lifting of the body, which police photos have confirmed.</p> <p>After our forensic and police investigation, it turned out that the death was accidental. But several questions were asked by us:</p> <p>- Have the water tank been properly secured?</p> <p>- If the water tank is not, who is responsible for the death of this girl?</p> <p>- If justice decides to retaliate, who would it be against?</p> MOHAMMED DJILALI MERZOUG Copyright (c) 3 1 Abrogation of inflammation, apoptosis, and oxidative damage in Testicular Toxicity Induced by Cisplatin in Rats using Blackberry Juice https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1722 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Testicular toxicity is one of the serious side effects of cisplatin (CP), which is a major limiting factor in clinical chemotherapy. <strong>Objectives</strong>: The current study was designed to investigate the influence of the pretreatment of blackberry juice (BBJ) on cisplatin-induced testicular toxicity in rats. <strong>Materials and methods:</strong> 32 male Albino rats were divided into four groups (8 rats/group). control group was treated with oral saline; BBJ group received BBJ 1.6 g/kg p.o.; CP group received single dose CP 10 mg/kg i.p.; and CP+BBJ group received single dose CP 10 mg/kg i.p. and BBJ 1.6 g/kg orally. At the end of the experiment, testicular tissues were harvested for histopathological and immunohistochemical assessment. Serum testosterone and oxidative markers (Malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, catalase, reduced glutathione) were evaluated. <strong>Results</strong>: CP caused histopathological changes in all testicular tissues in CP treated group in the form of degeneration and disorganization of germinal cells, irregular seminiferous tubules with decreased number of spermatogenic cells of seminiferous tubules, compared to the control group. These changes are paralleled with elevated Malondialdehyde levels and a decrease in antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, reduced glutathione) activities. Co-treatment of BBJ with CP abrogates all the biochemical deteriorations with the restoration of the normal histological architecture of testes. <strong>Conclusions</strong>: BBJ ameliorates CP induced testicular tissue damage as a potent free radical scavenger due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.</p> Mahrous Ibrahim Copyright (c) 3 1 Thinking innovatively in the field of forencic sciences in the light of contemporary cognitive sciences https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1725 <p>- The increasing and complexity of security challenges in the world and the difficulty of predicting the security scene today, and the need to change the methods and outputs of scientific research, as well as the need for innovative projects that respond to the so-called VUCA (Volatile, Uncertain, Complex and Ambiguous), are two main factors for the need to think outside the box in the field of forensic sciences and the need to carry out innovative research that provides innovative solutions to prevent and combat crime.<br>- Innovation requires flexibility in thinking, research management and methods, fluency in solutions, and novelty in approaches and initiatives. It also requires a rich diversity in specializations and in the way to linking them. The emergence of new technologies into both contemporary cognitive sciences (mainly cognitive psychology, cognitive neuroscience, and artificial intelligence) and forencic sciences has made a qualitative leap in dealing with crime and its components and in the study of human behavior within the framework of the comprehensive security concept.<br>- Emerging technologies as a link between cognitive science and forensic science play a central role in developing the work of police, lawyers, criminologists and forensic scientists alike. It is almost certain to revolutionize the future of forensic science and forensic science in general, increasing the likelihood of criminals being arrested and convicted, and assisting investigators in multiple cases such as missing persons, sexual assault cases, homicide cases and others.<br>- Nine advanced innovations can be observed that will affect the future of forensic science in general. They have begun to flourish in light of the development of contemporary cognitive sciences and their openness to other sciences, and they will bring great benefits to authorities, victims, families of victims and society in general:<br>o Face recognition algorithm<br>o Fingerprint analysis<br>o Predict hair and eye color and iris use in relation with personality traits<br>o Identification of the microbiome<br>o morphometrics<br>o biosensors<br>o Internet of things and forensics<br>o Forensic evidence of vehicle systems<br>o Mobile Police Laboratories<br>- Naif Arab University for Security Sciences, through the Vice Presidency for Scientific Research, launched the Innovation Lab, which will be a space that motivates researchers from different disciplines to meet and cooperate in order to create unfamiliar solutions, by encouraging innovative research and innovative product. The vision of the Innovation Lab is a multidisciplinary innovation and in the field of security sciences. Its mission is to provide innovative solutions with an impact that serve decision makers in the security field in its comprehensive concept.</p> Slim Masmoudi Copyright (c) 3 1 Ecological and taxonomic study of insects of criminal importance in the Jebel El Wahsh forest, Constantine, Algeria https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1719 <p><strong>Abstract </strong></p> <p>Forensic entomology is concerned with the study of insects and their environment in order to provide information useful for judicial investigations. Our current study was conducted in a forested area, which is the Jabal al-Wahsh forest located in the Constantine region in eastern Algeria.</p> <p>This study was carried out in cooperation with the National Institute of Criminology of the National Gendarmerie, where we identified the insects that participate in the decomposition of corpses (animal cadaver), during the experiment period (from April 30 to May 23, 2019). More than 1300 individuals were collected and the taxonomic study showed that there are 26 species of Arthropods. It is divided into five orders of insects, in addition to other arthropods such as spiders.</p> <p>Diptera is presented by a family of seven species. Beetles contain four families of six species and Hymenoptera three families of four species. We further examined the trend of species grouping over time by stage of cadaver decomposition. In order to use forensic entomology in investigations, such studies must be generalized to all regions of the country.</p> نعيمة بن كنانة Copyright (c) 3 1 The role of forensic medicine in determining criminal responsibility in front of multiple offenders https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1689 <pre id="tw-target-text" class="tw-data-text tw-text-large XcVN5d tw-ta" dir="ltr" data-placeholder="Traduction"><span class="Y2IQFc" lang="en">Forensic autopsy is an important element to discover the direct cause of death, especially when there are multiple perpetrators In December 2015, by being harnessed by the Public Prosecutor at Mazoona Court, we performed an autopsy on the body of the defendant, who was a victim of a hammer hit on the head on one side and run over by a car on the other. The multiplicity of perpetrators was an obstacle to the issuance of criminal sentences. The case centered on the final results of the autopsy, which showed that the direct cause of death It is a car run over (Hemothorax), not a concussion of the brain as a result of hitting with a hammer</span></pre> ياسر بوتشاشة Copyright (c) 3 1 دراسة بحثية حول الأحبار الحساسة وطرق كشف التزييف والتزوير من خلالها https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1724 <p><strong>اسم ولقب الباحث:</strong><strong>&nbsp; </strong>محمود طه مصطفى أبوصفيه ، رئيس قسم أبحاث التزييف والتزوير سابقا ،مدير مسرح جريمة محافظة الوسطى سابقا .</p> <p><strong>الهاتف:</strong> 00972592117609&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; <strong>&nbsp;البريد الالكتروني : </strong><a href="mailto:Moh.15.10.2015@gmail.com">Moh.15.10.2015@gmail.com</a></p> محمود أبوصفية Copyright (c) 3 1 Automated Signature Recognition under influence of drugs using Artificial Intelligence. https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1723 <p>Automatic signature under influence of drugs analysis is a challenging task in order to provide a potential solution to a range of important practical problems of feature extraction stage. To address this problem a novel transfer learning approach based on multiple deep features learning representation from a huge real-life data set from forensic medicine&nbsp; &nbsp;include contributors’ demographic labels or emotional status using a pre-trained Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) will be used.&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;Automatic estimation of emotion from signature biometrics can be a powerful and important tool to support a range of practical scenarios and applications for forensics.&nbsp; In recent years, automatic feature learning by CNNs has significantly improved the performance for signature verification. The current trend of CNNs literature suggests using deeper models for feature learning which could be beneficial to both performance of the system, and generalizability of the learned representations of training data.&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;The goal of transfer learning is to leverage knowledge from a source task to improve learning in a target task, mostly in cases when the two source and target tasks are similar. Since identifying a person’s signature closely resembles identifying one’s handwriting, it seems perfectly convenient to use handwriting data as the training input for the feature learning phase.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Ashraf EL Nour Copyright (c) 3 1 تهافت الأدلة الجنائية وراء تطور الوسائل العلمية https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1721 <p>من المعلوم أن الأدلة الجنائية بوصفها براهين علمية قائمة على منطق الاجتهاد العقلي والتحليل المختبري، أضحت تشكل لدى الكثير من الدارسين والمهتمين بالشأن القضائي والأمني عنصرا هاما وأساسيا بالنسبة لجميع الملفات والقضايا الجنائية المعروضة على المحاكم الزجرية المختصة بمختلف درجاتها (الجنايات،الجنح،المخالفات)، وذلك بسبب ارتباطها الوثيق والمستمر مع مختلف الأفعال الإجرامية المرتكبة من لدن المجرمين على مستوى مسرح الجريمة، سواء المادية منها والتي تسبب ضررا ماديا مباشرا على جسم الضحية نذكر منها القتل والسرقة والضرب والجرح...، أو المعنوية التي ينتج عنها ضررا معنويا فقط كالتحريض والسب والقذف والشتم....، ولعل اللائحة تطول لتشمل كافة الجرائم الأخرى كالجريمة السيبيرانية والجريمة البيئية والجريمة الأخلاقية...، بما أنها تتقاسم وتستجيب إلى الولاية العامة للأدلة الجنائية في إثبات الجريمة واكتشاف المجرم، غير أن هذه الوجدانية المطلقة المنصبة حول قيمة الأدلة الجنائية في محاولتها لإظهار حقيقة الجريمة والمجرم في أن واحد، لا يمكن الجزم بها مطلقا&nbsp;وإسقاطها على كل الجرائم المعاقب عليها بموجب القوانين الجنائية، بيد أن هذه الأدلة الجنائية إذا كانت بعضها مستقرة تماما في النتيجة، ولا يمكن أن يشوبها تغيير أو تحريف أو زيادة أو نقصان في الكم والكيف، كما هو الحال بالنسبة للبصمة الوراثية والحمض النووي الخاص بكل كائن حي على حدة، بالإضافة إلى بصمة الأصابع والسائل المنوي، فإن هناك العديد من هذه الأدلة تتغير بتغير العوامل الفيزيولوجية مثلا تلك التي تنصب على الإنسان في شكله الخارجي، ولا سيما عمليات الجراحة والتجميل التي انتشرت بدون توقف وبصورة غير محدودة في سائر الأمصار والأقطار، وأصبح معها الجسم اللإنساني عرضة للإجتهاد والإبتكار والتجديد، يتغير وفق الطريقة التي يريدها المعني بالأمر، أو بناء على الطريقة والوصفة التي يتقنها الجراح.</p> <p>كما أن الاستعمال المفرط للآليات التي تنصب عليها الأدلة الجنائية في علاقتها مع الفعل الإجرامي (الجريمة) و(مرتكبها المجرم) من فاعل أصلي ومعنوي ومساهم ومشارك، أظهر معه بعض مظاهر العجز في مواكبة المستجدات الطارئة في الظاهرة الإجرامية التي استجابت بسرعة مفرطة إلى المتغيرات والتطورات العلمية والتكنولوجية والتقنية.&nbsp;</p> <p>فإذا سلمنا أن التحقيق الذي يطال الآثار الفيزيولوجية التي عرف بها المجرم مرتكب الجريمة في وسطه الاجتماعي واستأنسه بها أفراد المجتمع، ولم يطرأ عليها تغيير جذري أو تغيير جزئي على الأقل في ملامحه وهيئته وبشرته، فهذا يرمي على أنه من السهل الوصول إليه في ظرف قياسي ووجيز بسبب تقدم الأبحاث البوليسية من خلال الآليات اللوجيستيكية المخصصة لهذا الغرض، ولكن على العكس من ذلك إذا ما افترضنا أنه وقع تغيير ما على الشكل الخارجي للمجرم سواء كان جزئيا أو كليا فأكيد لا يمكن الوصول في هذه الحالة إلى حل سريع لنغلق معه ملف القضية ونرفعه في الأخير إلى الجهة القضائية لتقول كلمتها، بل سيمتد معه الأمر إلى شهور وسنوات حسب حنكة البحث البوليسي، ومن ثم نقر مبدئيا بتعثر دور الأدلة الجنائية التقليدية المتمثلة في الشهود والرسم التخطيطي والكشف السريع لهوية المشتبه فيه. على أساس أن الأدلة الجنائية المعتمدة في هذا الإطار والرامية إلى الكشف وبيان غموض الجرائم في مرحلتي البحث والتحقيق تختلف بطبيعة الحال باختلاف الواقعة الإجرامية والوسائل التي تم اعتمادها لارتكاب الجريمة، ومهما يكن فالآثار التي أفرزتها الأدلة الجنائية في الواقع العملي المخصص لدراسة الملفات الجنائية بالرغم من نسبيتها في بعض الأحوال، جعلت كل الفاعلين من فرق البحث الجنائي والهيئة القضائية وهيئة الدفاع، تصطف وسطا في الاعتماد على مناهجها تارة بصفة شمولية و تارة بصفة جزئية. استحقاقا لقاعدة جواز الاستغناء ببعض الأدلة عن بعضها الآخر إذ كان الدليل الجنائي باطلا ويفترض استبعاده ليس من شأنه أن يؤثر في وجدانية القاضي الجنائي إذا فطن إلى فساده أو بطلانه.</p> <p>&nbsp;وإذا كان الأصل في استخدام الأدلة الجنائية في ميدان التحقيق الجنائي، يجعل المحققين الجنائيين باعتبارها الفئة المهنية الأولى التي تحتك معها، في وضعية مريحة وسليمة في تعاملهم مع الدليل الجنائي المعروض للفحص والتحليل لإثبات الجرم من عدمه، بناء على خاصيتي الدقة والتمييز في كيفية جمع وتحليل الآثار المادية ومعالجتها عن طريق الخبرة الفنية والمختبرية، حتى تصبح دليلا جنائيا يعتد عليه في الإثبات والإدانة أو النفي والبراءة. فقد أصبحت هذه المسلمات في الوقت الراهن غير مجدية ومقنعة بالنسبة لعدد من التشريعات القانونية المقارنة، بسبب وجود عوامل عدة ساهمت في تغيير معادلة ثبات الدليل الجنائي في الواقعة الإجرامية نذكر منها على سبيل المثال لا على سبيل الحصر تغير الأحبال الصوتية وقت ارتكاب الجريمة أو بعدها بسبب معين أو بدونه، كما نجد تغير فصيلة الدم عن طريق تحول الأنزيمات (الموسينات) المسؤولة عن إزالة مولدات الضد من سطح الكرية الحمراء، ومن جهة أخرى نجد أيضا تغير فروة أو غطاء الشعر عن طريق زراعة بصيلات الشعر الخاصة بإنسان أخر...، كل هذه المتغيرات جعلت الأثار التي تتركها الأدلة الجنائية في قلب مسرح الجريمة تتضارب بين اليقين والشك، وبين الأخذ والرد، وبين الجزم والنفي، &nbsp;وهو ما يجعلنا عازمين على البحث في هذا الموضوع الشائك والمعقد من خلال هذه الورقة العلمية، ضمن المحور الثاني المتعلق&nbsp;&nbsp;بمستجدات البحث العلمي في مجالات علوم الأدلة الجنائية على المستويين العربي والدولي انطلاقا من الإشكال التالي :</p> <p>ما مدى مصداقية بعض الأدلة الجنائية أمام التطور المهول للوسائل العلمية والتكنولوجية والتقنية ؟</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> سعد بن عجيبة Copyright (c) 3 1 FUNGAL CONTAMINATION ON USED SURGICAL MASKS AMONG FORENSIC DEPARTMENT PERSONNEL: A STUDY IN THE COVID-19 ERA https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1703 <p>Medical masks are commonly used in health care settings to protect healthcare workers from respiratory infections, especially in the recent Covid-19 disease context. This is a cross-sectional study of 52 used masks collected from 52 forensic department personnel during one month, to culture for fungal isolation and identification. Study of fungal contamination was undertaken by making of impression of the mouth mask cut piece on Sabouraud agar for selective isolation, and questionnaire was distributed for each health worker.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;Out of the 52 used masks collected, 25 were positive for fungal presence (48,08%), majority of contaminated masks belong to males (80%). A percentage of 44% of the contaminated masks belong to health workers aged 21-30 years. The contaminated protective devices were surgical masks (80%), KN95 (8%), and N95 (4%). For 1-2 hours mask duration usage, fungal contamination was 4%, while a duration usage of 5-6 hours was linked to 36% of fungal contamination.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;A duration usage of 1-2- hours is linked to 4% of fungal contamination, while duration of 5-6 hours is related to 36% of fungal contamination. The predominant isolated fungi contaminated on inside areas of the used masks were&nbsp;<em>Alternaria sp</em>&nbsp;(32%),&nbsp;<em>Penicillium sp</em>&nbsp;(20%),&nbsp;<em>Aspergillus sp</em>&nbsp;(16%).</p> <p>&nbsp;Several fungal species cause allergic reactions in humans. Thus, the appropriate use, storage and disposal of masks are essential to make them as effective as possible.</p> عمر حجازي Copyright (c) 3 1 The European Cybercrime Center strategy to counter cybercrime https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1720 <p>The evolution of the information system in this age has resulted in new criminal acts alongside traditional crime, relying on new techniques and innovative methods. These criminal acts drew the attention of States and international agencies to include them in their priorities and interests and to provide the necessary legal protection to combat them.<br>Where the European Union established an agency to combat terrorism, cybercrime and other forms of organized crime, dubbed "Europol" European Police Office.</p> <p>In furtherance of the European Union Cybercrime Act, the European Cybercrime Center (EC3) was established under the auspices of Europol, which began operations on 1 January 2013. It serves as the focal point in the fight against cybercrime in the European Union. This paper attempts to illustrate EC3's organizational structure, methodology and efforts in combating cybercrime.<br><br></p> محمد بركة Copyright (c) 3 1 دور بصمة المخ في الإثبات الجنائي https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1718 <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; <strong>الملخص</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>تعد الآثار البيولوجية الناتجة عن إرتكاب الجرائم والموجودة على مسرح الجريمة مثل (بصمات الاصابع، الدم، ألياف الشعر...) إلي غير ذلك من الآثار المرتبطة إما بجسد المجني عليه أو الجاني، الا أن المشكلة تثور عندما لا يكن على مسرح الجريمة أية آثار بيولوجية هنا يكون الإثبات الجنائي أصعب.</p> <p>ظل الأمر كذلك الي أن ظهر ما يعرف ببصمة المخ أو بصمة الذاكرة ، والمتمثلة فيما يطبع بمخ الجاني من صور وأحداث يمكن من خلال عرضها عليه وباستخدام تقنيات تعتمد على استجابة أعصابه لها،&nbsp; تحديد الجاني من وسط المشتبه فيهم.</p> <p>ويجيب هذا البحث عن تساؤلات متمثلة في مفهوم بصمة المخ وتكييفها كوسيلة من وسائل الإثبات الجنائي.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> mahmoud mohamed abd el azim sweif Copyright (c) 3 1 Comparative analysis of extraction methods for rapid analysis of amphetamine in human urine using LCMS. https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1717 <p>Amphetamine is considered as a toxic causative factor for cardiovascular and central nervous system diseases. Rapid and precise identification of amphetamine is critical for differential diagnosis in such cases, particularly in an emergency. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare two extraction methods: liquid-liquid extraction (LEE) and solid-phase extraction (SPE) for the analysis of amphetamine in human urine samples using LCMS. The analytical technique of liquid chromatography was used in conjunction with the LCQ fleet mass analyzer (LCMS). The linearity, recovery, accuracy, precision, repeatability, and carryover of the LLE and SPE extraction methods were independently validated. Twenty amphetamine-spiked urine samples were extracted using both methods to ensure validity, together with the calibrators, controls, and blanks required for validation parameter evaluation. The turnaround time for sample extraction was determined for both extraction methods. Both LLE and SPE methods were found to be accurate, precise, and repeatable, and to be within acceptable criteria with no observed carryover effect. In terms of turnaround time, LLE was faster than SPE. The recovery rate for SPE was higher than for LLE. SPE is therefore superior to LEE in dose-dependent intervention situations and samples that have a low level of amphetamine. In emergencies where the time is critical, LEE is superior to SPE.</p> Ibraheem Mohammed Attafi Copyright (c) 3 1 ANALYTICAL INTERFERENCE IN MOLECULARLY IMPRINTED POLYMER SPE (MIP-SPE) AND UPLC-QTOF-MS https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1716 <p>Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) provide a medium with high selectivity binding sites for analytes with specific structural features. Accordingly, MIPs have been promoted as selective solid-phase extraction (SPE) media for extraction of targeted analytes that may serve to minimize matrix effects while providing desirable reagent and pH stability. A key limitation of MIP-SPE, however, is the bleeding and detection of residual templete molecules from the polymer matrix detected by more sensitive instrument platforms. Here we report template bleeding and interference with analysis of selected amphetamine-related drugs (ARDs) in aged/postmortem blood by UPLC-qTOF-MS. Evaluation of matrix interference and ME (ionization suppression/enhancement) was done according to the Scientific Working Group for Forensic Toxicology (SWGTOX) Standard Practices. Ephedrine (EPH), a toxicologically important analyte, was observed to leach from a commercially available MIP across extracts of numerous drug-free blood and aqueous matrices, increasing apparent instrument EPH response by more than 25% at real EPH concentrations of 20 ng/ml. Mixed mode SPE (MMSPE) and filtration Pass-Through Extraction (FPTE) analyses of various drug-free aqueous and decomposed blood matrices confirmed the MIP as the source of the EPH interference. While the extraction selectivity provided by MIP technology is remarkable, the potential for template leeching as a significant source of interference of selected analytes may be very high and should be characterized and disclosed by all venders.</p> Ibraheem Mohammed Attafi Copyright (c) 3 1 Causes and reforms of wrongful convictions https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1715 <p>Wrongful conviction is defined as convicting a person and punishing him for a crime he did not commit. Furthermore, such a problem is increasingly recognized in an increasing number of countries. Such an issue is being treated as an international human rights issue. Among the reasons for such problems are: eyewitness mistakes in identifying the offender, in addition, technical mistakes in forensic evidence reports, additionally, the mistakes of the executive authorities, as one of the important reasons is the exaggeration or underestimation of the evidentiary value of the testimony of the criminal expert. Many countries have begun to take corrective measures to reduce the occurrence of these convictions and address them if they occur, and will be addressed during the lecture.</p> ASFSFM Scientific Committee عبدالغني بن حنش الشهري Copyright (c) 3 1 Risk analysis of chemical profile of hashish seizures and their possible role in criminal and fatalities in Jazan https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1714 <p>Hashish (also known as cannabis resin) is a narcotic substance made from a concentrated extract of cannabis flowers and leaves. It has the potential to induce confusion, anxiety, panic, paranoia and psychosis. The purpose of this research was to analyze the risks associated with the chemical composition of cannabis seizures, as well as their potential involvement in hashish-related forensic cases in Jazan. From the beginning of January 2018 to the end of December 2020, all forensic cases were retrospectively examined utilizing successive sampling. The data was acquired from the OTARR electronic system utilizing the data collection form, descriptive analysis was performed. The organic composition of seized hashish was determined using the gas chromatography-mass spectrometer analysis method. The percentage cases with positive THC (active component of hashish) were 1, 2, and 5% in fatal cases and was 29, 26, and 31% in crime cases in 2018, 2019, and 2020, respectively. The cases with positive only to THC was increased from zero in 2018 to 11% in 2020 among fatal cases and were decreased from 62 in 2018 to 29% in 2020 among crime cases. Homicidal death was the most common manner of death (50%) among those who were positively for THC, followed by suicidal death (28.5%). THC urine concentration in crime cases, as well as postmortem distribution concentrations in fatal cases were determined. The compositions in hashish resins are dronabinol, cannabidiol, cannabigerol, cannabinol, cannabielsoic acid, cannabidivarol, cannabichromene, and cannabidivarol, and their possible role in crimes and fatalities is discussed.</p> Ibraheem Mohammed Attafi Copyright (c) 3 1 Forensic medicine building, Muharram Bey, next to Muharram Bey Court, Alexandria, Arab Republic of Egypt https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1713 <p>Automatic signature under influence of drugs analysis is a challenging task in order to<br>provide a potential solution to a range of important practical problems of feature extraction<br>stage. To address this problem a novel transfer learning approach based on multiple deep<br>features learning representation from a huge real-life data set from forensic medicine (<br>include contributors’ demographic labels or emotional status ) using a pre-trained<br>Convolutional Neural Networks, or CNNs will be used.<br>Automatic estimation of emotion from signature biometrics can be a powerful and<br>important tool to support a range of practical scenarios and applications for forensics</p> Ashraf EL Nour Copyright (c) 3 1 التدبير القضائي للأوامر الطبية https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1712 <p><strong><u>أولا: الأهداف</u></strong></p> <ul> <li class="show">التعريف بالتجربة المغربية في مجال تدبير خدمات الطب الشرعي</li> <li class="show">إبراز دور النيابة العامة في الوقاية من الجرائم وضمان محاكمة عادلة؛</li> <li class="show">تسليط الضوء على حدود العلاقة بين مؤسسة النيابة العامة والطب الشرعي؛</li> </ul> <p><strong><u>ثانيا: طريقة العمل </u></strong></p> <p>منهجياً سيتم التمييز، بشأن الأوامر الطبية التي تشرف النيابة العامة على تدبيرها، بين التي تلي انتهاء فترة الحراسة النظرية وتقديم المتهمين أمامها؛ ففي هذه الحالة يكون لها أن تأمر بإجراء فحوص طبية لفائدة الأشخاص الموقوفين إما تلقائياً أو بناءًّ على طلب من المتهم أو دفاعه (<strong>المحور الأول</strong>). وبين التي تصدرها بمناسبة تدبير تقارير الوفيات المتوصل بها من الشرطة القضائية. وينصب موضوعها إما على إجراء معاينات وأخذ عينات أو على إجراء تشريح طبي (<strong>المحور الثاني</strong>).</p> <p>وعليه، فإن منهجية هذه المحاضرة ستكون وفقا للمحورين التالين:</p> <ul> <li class="show"><strong>المحور الأول</strong>: تدبير الأوامر بإجراء الفحوص الطبية.</li> <li class="show"><strong>المحور الثاني</strong>: تدبير الأوامر بإجراء المعاينات والتشريح طبي.</li> </ul> <p><strong><u>ثالثا: النتائج والمناقشة</u></strong></p> <ul> <li class="show">تضطلع النيابة العامة بصلاحيات مهمة بشأن تدبيرها للفحوص الطبية المأمور بها.</li> <li class="show">يأمر بإجراء هذه الفحوص عند معاينة آثار للعنف تلقائيا للأشخاص المودعين رهن الحراسة النظرية، أو إذا تقدم الشخص الموقوف أو دفاعه بطلب إجرائها.</li> <li class="show">يتم إجراء هذه فحوص للتأكد من السلامة النفسية والجسدية للأشخاص الموقوفين، وفي حالة الإصابة، لتحديد طبيعة هذه الإصابات اللاحقة بهم، وسببها وتاريخها.</li> <li class="show">يعهد بإجراء هذه الفحوص إلى الأطباء المزاولين لمهام الطب الشرعي.</li> <li class="show">يتمتع الطبيب بكامل الاستقلالية في إبداء آراءه الفنية والتقنية، وتكتسي التقارير المنجزة من قبله طابعا سريا، إذ لا يمكن الاطلاع عليها إلا من طرف الجهة القضائية التي انتدبته.</li> <li class="show">على مستوى آخر، تتوصل النيابة العامة بعدة تقارير مكتوبة تشعرها بوقوع وفاة، وتوضح ظروف اكتشاف الجثة والمعاينات المجراة عليها، فضلا عن هوية المتوفى، والإجراءات الأولية التي تم اتخاذها.</li> <li class="show">بعد دراسة هذه التقارير، تصدر أمرا، إما بإجراء فحص طبي على جثة الهالك، أو بتشريحها، يعهد بتنفيذه إلى طبيب شرعي، وذلك أخذا بعين الاعتبار الظروف المحيطة بكل حالة وفاة على حدة.</li> <li class="show">يتضمن القانون المتعلق بتنظيم ممارسة مهام الطب الشرعي الصادر حديثاً عدة مقتضيات تقنن وتؤطر عمل ومهام الأطباء الشرعيين في علاقتهم بالنيابة العامة، سيتم تفصيلها عند تقديم المحاضرة أو المناقشة.</li> </ul> محمد رياض Copyright (c) 3 1 Pattern of Fatal Injuries due to Road Traffic Accidents in Khartoum, Sudan: A Retrospective Study https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1711 <p>Abstract<br>This retrospective study was carried out to find out the<br>pattern of fatal injuries due to RTAs as well as the sociodemographic<br>profile of the victims. This helps in reconstruction<br>of RTAs and suggestion of steps for prevention.<br>All the victims of road traffic accidents subjected to medico-<br>legal autopsy at the mortuary of Bashayir teaching hospital<br>in Khartoum, Sudan during the three month period from<br>1st January 2017 to the 31st of March 2017 were included<br>in the study.<br>Out of 256 autopsies conducted during the study period,<br>deaths due to RTA were 109 (42.6%). Males died due to RTA<br>more than females with a ratio of 2:1. The highest number<br>of deaths was 36 (33%), recorded in the age group 20-29<br>years, and the lowest number was 6 (5.5%) in the age group<br>60 years and above. From the majority of RTA victims, 50<br>(45.9%) died due to head injury followed by 29 who died<br>from multiple injuries/fractures 29 (26.6%). Hemorrhagic<br>shock was the cause of death in 22 (20.2%) cases. Septicemia<br>and complications were the cause in 5 (4.6%) and 2 (1.8%)<br>cases, respectively. Spinal injuries took the life of one victim<br>(0.9%).<br>This study shows that there was a high percentage of<br>RTA deaths among males of a young age. Abrasions were<br>the most common type of external injuries. The skull was<br>the most common bone to be fractured in the accidents. And<br>head injury was the most common cause of death.</p> Rawan Khalid Salih Copyright (c) 3 1 Scientific Poster Procedures for gathering inferences and investigating cyber crimes. https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1709 <p>Scientific and technological development has led to the emergence of a new revolution, and this revolution is always associated with the idea of ​​the computer, whose use has spread in the twenty-first century through the international information network “the Internet”, which has made the world an open electronic village in which information is transmitted at high speed, to witness the emergence of the dawn It is new, and it is the dawn of the information revolution. In a not so long time ago, we did not imagine that life would depend primarily and absolutely on information systems, unless that became a reality. Therefore, no one can deny the virtue of new information and communication technology, especially in light of the tremendous progress we are witnessing. As it provides many facilities to the states and their agencies, and now represents the basic environment for all facilities that are managed by information systems.<br>This technological development in the information field at the same time led to the development and modernization of crime in terms of methods and contents, which led to the emergence of many crimes that are carried out using information systems to be the ideal means to achieve many crimes away from the eyes of the security authorities. Science and crime are a constant struggle.<br>On this basis, the unique nature of cybercrime has made it difficult to include it within the traditional descriptions in national and international criminal laws, given the fragility of procedural prosecution systems, whether at the level of prosecution within the framework of national laws or at the level of international prosecution, which necessitated the development of a set of mechanisms in order to accommodate them. And besiege it by finding and developing security and judicial solutions, while developing legislation and agreements with similar legislative intelligence that reflects the due accuracy at the legal level, and all other aspects and dimensions of these new technologies. “Cyber ​​espace” is a theater of novel crimes committed in a virtual world that is not physically tangible, but has a real existence.<br>From the foregoing, we will try, through this scientific poster, to address the study of the problem of research in the procedures for collecting inferences and investigating cyber crimes, which is characterized by great difficulty, and this is due to the ease of concealing the crime, as well as the ease and movement of erasing or destroying evidence and landmarks of the crime, which increases the difficulty of collecting Evidence through inspection, inspection, seizure, and other procedures, whether traditional or new.</p> <p>The division of the scientific poster will be according to the following plan:<br>The first axis: Procedures for collecting inferences in cyber crimes.<br>The second axis: investigation procedures in cybercrime.</p> عبد العزيز خنفوسي Copyright (c) 3 1 Deepfake Application: between criminalization and permissibility An analytical descriptive study https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1708 <p><strong>الملخص: </strong>التزييف العميق إحدى تطبيقات الذكاء الاصطناعي التي تسمح للمستخدمين بتغيير المحتوى الرقمي كالصور ومقاطع الفيديو وتسجيلات الصوت، لتنتج صورة جديدة أو مقطع أو تسجيل جديد يتعارض مع الحقيقة الواردة في المحتوى الأصلي. وتتجسد المشكلة في أن هذا التطبيق متاح للجميع دون ضوابط تذكر وهو ما أثر على فكرة الحقيقة وإنكارها بسبب دقة تزييف المحتوى. ويستطيع الجميع دون تمييز تحميله عبر المتاجر الإلكترونية مجاناً وهو ما يشكل- بطبيعة الحال- خطراً جسيماً على حقوق الآخرين كما أنها تشكل تحدياً موضوعياً وإجرائياً أمام أجهزة العدالة الجنائية. لذلك نسلط الضوء في هذا البحث على ماهية هذا التطبيق ومميزاته وعيوبه والوقوف على ملامح التحدي الذي يفرضه هذا التطبيق من منظور جنائي واستعراض موقف المشرع الأمريكي وصولاً إلى نتائج وتوصيات. وقد تطلب ذلك اتباع المنهج الوصفي لعرض فكرة وآلية عمل تطبيق التزييف العميق والمنهج التحليلي لدراسة إشكالاتها وبيان بعض التشريعات العقابية منها.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Abstract</strong>: Deep fake is an artificial intelligence application that allows users to alter digital content such as photos, videos, and audio recordings, to produce a new image, clip, or recording that contradicts the truth in the original content. The problem is that this application is available to everyone without restrictions that affect the idea of ​​truth and its denial because of the falsification of content. Everyone can download it without discrimination through online stores for free, which, of course, constitutes a serious danger to the rights of others and constitutes an objective and procedural challenge to criminal justice agencies. Therefore, we shed light in this research on the nature of this application, its advantages and disadvantages, identify the features of the challenge posed by this application from a criminal perspective, and review the position of the American legislator, leading to conclusions and recommendations. This required following the descriptive approach to present the idea and mechanism of the application of deep forgery and the analytical approach to study its problems and the position of the American criminal legislator regarding it.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> د. معاذ الملا Copyright (c) 3 1 A Forensic evaluation of Qiagen Investigator Argus Y-28 with case work samples https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1707 <p><strong>Abstract: </strong>Short Tandem Repeats polymorphisms on the Y-chromosome (Y-STRs) are playing a significant role in history of human hereditary. The recently introduced 6-dyes Qiagen investigator Argus Y-28 Kit which include 28Y-STR loci (DYS389I ,DYS391 ,DYS389II ,DYS533 , DYS390 ,DYS627, DYS458 , DYS393, DYS19, DYS437, DYS449 , DYS460, DYS576, YGATAH4, DYS481, DYS448, DYS518,DYS439, DYS549, DYS438, DYS456, DYS643, QS1, DYS570, DYS635, DYS385, DYS392, QS2).Has been used&nbsp; for internal validation study used in the forensic laboratories which followed sensitivity study, Mixture Studies, PCR parameter limits ,stability study, and performance on mock casework samples. The results reported by statistical analysis using ANOVA program. The results validate the kit’s robustness, reliability, and suitability as an assay for human identification with casework DNA samples . We expect this kit, will improve male relative differentiation in future and human hereditary applications.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> افنان الشامسي Copyright (c) 3 1 The Forensic DNA https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1685 <p><strong>ABSTRACT</strong></p> <p><strong>INTRODUCTION: </strong>Every disaster is unique and involves interplay of different factors such as nature of disaster, number of victims and extent of body fragmentation that ultimately challenges the disaster response planning.</p> <p><strong>AIM OF WORK</strong>: To recognize and decide which human tissue is preferred&nbsp; over the other for DNA tests for human identification&nbsp; in disasters .</p> <p><strong>MATERIALS AND METHODS</strong>: This cross sectional&nbsp; laboratory based study was conducted &nbsp;and funded by the Egyptian Forensic Medicine Authority (EFMA) at Sayda Zaynab. From May 2016 to April 2017 and tested using manual&nbsp; Quiagen extraction kit or Quiagen automated kit using EZ1.</p> <p>Extracted DNA&nbsp; &nbsp;then quatified using Quatifiler® Human DNA by Step one Real Time PCR.&nbsp;</p> <p>Samples were amplified using&nbsp; AmpFlSTR R&nbsp; Identifiler R&nbsp; Plus.&nbsp; Amplified PCR products were run&nbsp; on &nbsp;3130xl , 3500 Genetic Analyzer</p> <p>&nbsp;<strong>RESULTS</strong>:&nbsp; Comparison between different tissues recovered from the site of different&nbsp;&nbsp; disasters&nbsp; showed that dry blood stain&nbsp; have better DNA yield and STR results&nbsp; followed by fresh tissue. Moreover cartilage samples are preferable to bone samples concerning DNA yield and STR results. Finally skin followed by teeth had the least DNA yield.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION</strong>: During sample selection of collected tissue and fragments it is preferable to get a dry blood sample if&nbsp; available , or try to select fresh muscle tissue&nbsp; if not available&nbsp; search for hair with roots then&nbsp; selection of cartilage gave&nbsp; better&nbsp; results than bone concerning DNA yield and STR results leaving&nbsp; skin then teeth as the last choice.</p> <p><strong>KEYWORDS: </strong>Disasters, human identification, DNA yield, STR.</p> Jihan Naser Copyright (c) 3 1 تقنيات علم النفس الإستقصائي ودورها في تعزيز الدليل الجنائي. (تقنية الإستجواب المعزز، بصمة المخ) https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1705 <p>تهدف هذه الورقة الى توضيح الدور الحديث لإستخدامات علم النفس الإستقصائي (Investigative psychology) في تقديم الدعم الفني التشغيلي لتعزيز الإدله الجنائية ضد المتهم وتحديد مصداقية الشهود في عدد من الجرائم الخطيره خاصة التى ترتبط بالأمن السيبراني والإرهاب. وتستخدم الورقة المنهج الوصفي التاريخي لمناقشة وتحليل تطبيق تلك التقنيات بعد إرتكاب الجريمه.</p> <p>تستند الورقة نظريا على أدبيات علم نفس الشرطة الحديث الذي تم الاعتراف به رسميًا كتخصص في علم النفس المهني يُدرس بهدف تفعيل نظريات وآليات علم النفس في أعمال الشرطة لتقدم بكفاءة عالية وأمان وفعالية أخلاقية وقانونية.</p> <p>ترتكز هذه الورقة عمليا على محورين أساسين الأول هو تقنية الإستجواب المعزز Enhanced Interrogation Techniques)) وهي برنامج نفسي يعمل على إضعاف وكسر المقاومة عند التحقيق والاستجواب للحصول على معلومات دقيقة في فتره قصيرة. &nbsp;والمحور الثاني هو تقنية بصمة المخ Brain Fingerprinting)) التى تعُدّ أقوي الأدلة في أنظمة القياسات الحيوية لإثبات وتحديد الجرائم، وتعتمد على المعلومات الفعليه عن الجريمة التى يقوم المتهم بتخزينها في ذاكرته ولا يستطيع تغييرها أو محوها بغض النظر عن صدق الأقوال التي أدلي بها في التحقيق، وبالتالي يكشف لا إراديا وبدقه عن حقيقة ما حدث.</p> <p>أنتهت الورقة الى عدد من التوصيات أهمها ضروره تطوير تقنيات علم النفس الإستقصائي في تعزيز الأدلة الجنائية لتتناسب مع واقع وقيم الدول العربية والأسلامية، كما قدمت عدد من المقترحات في هذا المجال.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> أماني عبدالله علي Copyright (c) 3 1 Improving Chain of Custody in Image Forensics Investigation: Experimental Study of Fuzzy Hashing https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1704 <p>Digital evidence is critical in cybercrime investigations because it is used to connect individuals to illegal activity. Digital evidence is complicated, diffuse, volatile, and easily altered, and as such, it must be protected. The Chain of Custody (CoC) is a critical component of the digital evidence procedure. The aim of the CoC is to demonstrate that the evidence has not been tampered with at any point throughout the investigation. Because the uncertainty associated with digital evidence is not being assessed at the moment, it is impossible to determine the trustworthiness of CoC. As scientists, forensic examiners have a responsibility to reverse this tendency and officially confront the uncertainty inherent in any evidence upon which they base their judgments. To address these issues, this article proposes a new paradigm for ensuring the integrity of digital evidence (CoC documents). The new paradigm employed fuzzy hash within blockchain data structure to handle uncertainty introduced by error-prone tools when dealing with CoC documents. Traditional hashing techniques are designed to be sensitive to small input modifications and can only determine if the inputs are exactly the same or not. By comparing the similarity of two images, fuzzy hash functions can determine how different they are. We provide a case study for image forensics to illustrate the usefulness of this model in introducing forensic preparedness to computer systems and enabling a more effective digital investigation procedure.</p> Saad Mohamed Darwish Hany M. ELgohary Shimaa Elsebaey Copyright (c) 3 1 الدلائل الدلائل التي يشير لها شكل الجرح الناري(الدخولي) والأثار الموجودة عليه وحوله https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1695 <p><strong>يسرني ويشرفني ان اقدم هذا البحث بعنوان لدلائل التي يشير لها شكل الجرح&nbsp; الناري(الدخولي) والأثار الموجودة عليه وحوله والبحث يتوافق مع اهداف ومجالات المجلة كونه يتحدث عن&nbsp;موضوع علمي هام يتعلق بالقدرة على قراءة الجروح النارية ومعرفة ماذا تعني اشكال الجروح النارية الدخولية والى ماذا تشير الاثار الموجودة على وحول تلك الجروح وتكمن اهميته للطلاب والمبتدئين في العمل الفني الجنائي ويساعدهم في اكتساب المهارات والخبرات بأشكال الجروح النارية الناتجة عن دخول المقاذيف النارية ويحل مشكلة القصور لدى بعض العاملين في وصف الاصابات والجروح النارية وصفاً دقيقاً يبين الجرح وما به وحوله من اثار حيث لاحظنا&nbsp; كثرة التذمر لدى القضاة والمحققين والمحامين من قصور في تقارير بعض الخبراء العاملين بالطب الشرعي والادلة الجنائية</strong></p> ناصر احمد حسين الشافعي Copyright (c) 3 1 ما هو ما هو الفرق بين الأدلة الجنائية والطب الشرعي مقارنة من حيث التقارير والاختصاصات(اليمن نموذجاً) https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1694 <p><strong>?ما العلاقة بين محضر الادلة الجنائية وتقرير الطبيب الشرع</strong><strong>ي&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>السؤال السابق الذي استفتحت به &nbsp;ملخصي&nbsp; فتح &nbsp;امامي افقاً واسعاً للتفكير </strong>&nbsp;<strong>واعطاني</strong> <strong>&nbsp;</strong><strong>أفكار للكتابة عن موضوع هام يستدعي التوضيح ولذا قمت&nbsp;بالإجابة على السؤال في بحث</strong> &nbsp;<strong>بعنوان</strong></p> <p><strong>ماهو الفرق بين الأدلة الجنائية والطب الشرعي مقارنة من حيث التقارير والاختصاصات(اليمن نموذج)وقد وضح البحث العلاقة والفرق بين جهتي خبرة يعًتمد عليهما في تقارير الخبرة ولوجود لبس لدى الكثير حول هاتين الجهتين بالاعتقاد انهما جهة واحدة واذا وجد تقرير احداهما يغني عن تقرير الاخر ويوضح البحث العلاقة بين جهتي الخبرة موضوعا البحث والفرق بين تقارير الجهتين&nbsp;</strong></p> ناصر احمد حسين الشافعي Copyright (c) 3 1 Newly Validated HPLC-DAD Method for Simultaneous Determination of Tramadol with its main metabolite (ODT) / Pregabalin in human plasma https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1673 <p>The combination of tramadol and pregabalin may be for therapeutic purposes, but recently addicts have begun to take pregabalin with or as an alternative to tramadol. Specialized laboratories are interested in developing confirmatory methods either to give quantitative values to patients with it so that its concentration does not reach the toxicity stage, as the clinical toxicology laboratories, or to provide physical evidence to prove cases of abuse, as the forensic laboratories, so a new high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method in this study was developed, optimized and validated for simultaneous determination of Tramadol , O-Desmethyl-cis-tramadol hydrochloride(ODT) and pregabalin in spiked human plasma sample . Separation was operated on A Zorbax eclips- C18 linked with a Zorbax - C8 columns with&nbsp; mobile phase gradient pumped at 1.5 ml /min was used to elute the analytes from the column. Mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile(ACN): buffer (0.01M) potassium dihydrogenphosphate with triethylamine (pH 4.5) (35: 65, v/v). The gradient was initiated by 65% phosphate buffer in the first six minutes and subsequently 50% phosphate buffer for the last ten minutes. Quantitation was achieved with UV detection at 218 nm. The assay was validated in the concentration range of 250 – 2500 ng / mL, 250 – 2500 ng / mL and 2500 – 40000 ng / mL&nbsp; for tramadol , O-Desmethyl-cis-tramadol hydrochloride and pregabalin respectively.Analyts were extracted from plasma by &nbsp;Liquid liquid extraction technique. &nbsp;The developed method was proved to be specific, robust and accurate for the determination of the studied drugs in human plasma.</p> Nour Abdelhakk Copyright (c) 3 1 Laser Excitations choices for latent Fingerprint Visualization and imaging https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1702 <p>To reach the best results on latent fingerprint visualization and imaging with laser, we need to know how to choose the appropriate laser excitation wavelength and power. In addition, the UV-visible spectroscopic properties (absorption, excitation and the luminescence) of the reagent reaction product with the latent fingerprint residue are necessary for the laser choice.&nbsp; This paper, will study the cases of two fingerprint reagents: 1,2-Indanedione and Ninhydrin followed by EuCl<sub>3</sub>. These reagents reacts with the fingerprint residue (amino acids part) and show yellow fluorescence (for 1,2-indanedione) and red luminescence (for Ninhydrin-EuCl<sub>3</sub>). We will discuss how to choose the laser excitation and power needed. The samples used are latent fingerprint on different kind of papers, but the method can be expanded to many other surfaces via time-resolved luminescence imaging technique. In addition, it could be applied to other fingerprint reagents which show laser induced fluorescence or visible emission.</p> Ismail Mekkaoui Alaoui Copyright (c) 3 1 Recent developments of vibrational spectroscopy coupled with chemometrics in forensic document examination and ink analysis https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1699 <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p>One of the most important goals of a forensic document examiner is to authenticate the document by investigating the inks in which the document has been written. So they need to implement various types of analysis. The first type is a physical examination of documents by microscopic and optical examinations. These routinely used methods lack behind discriminate several different writing inks, which require more advanced analysis. Though, vibrational spectroscopic analyses such as Raman and FTIR can provide information about chemical composition of questioned ink. The visual examination of spectra obtained by these tools gives better discrimination results than routine work methods but coupling a spectroscopic dataset with chemometric techniques such as principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) techniques have recently found their way in the forensic analysis of inks.</p> <p>&nbsp; Herein, we will explore the most recent publications dealing with vibrational spectroscopy (FTIR and RAMAN) with and without chemometrics analysis to distinguish, classify, characterize, and back to date writing ink samples and their application in forensic examination of documents.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> أحمد عبد الجواد محمد عثمان Copyright (c) 3 1 الطرق العلمية الطرق العلمية في التغلب على التعفن السلبي في استخلاض الحمض النووي من الجثث https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1697 <p>إلى أي مدى من الممكن أن يؤثر التعفن على جودة الحمض النووي وكيف يتم التغلب عليه باختيار العينة المناسبة في الجثث المتحللة جزئيًا.</p> abdulldh alomari Copyright (c) 3 1 family violence, female, univers Family violence pattern and its related factors among female university students in the Riyadh region of Saudi Arabia https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1669 <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Background and objectives: Family violence (FV), a well-recognized social problem, can interfere with the student’s adaptation during their academic lives. This study assessed the prevalence of family violence against Saudi female university students.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: A convenient sample technique was used to recruit a total of eight hundred and twenty-four female students to fill a self-administered questionnaire</p> <p>Results: About 20% of the participants experienced FV. Nearly 54% and 28.2% of them talked about the incident with family member and physician. Parenteral psychological abuse was the most common way of exposure (55%). The psychological impacts of FV were the most experienced effect in the form of stress (86.25%) and sleep disturbance (72.4%). Ignoring the incident (75.6%) was the most preferred students’ response.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: This study sheds light on FV problem among university female students in Saudi population and urges the student’s university counseling center to reach and support abuse students for ensuring their psychological health and safety.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: family violence, female, university, students, Saudi Arabia, survey</p> Norah Almajli Copyright (c) 3 1 Forensic Importance of Toolmarks Evidence: A Review https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1659 <p>A toolmark is an impression made by a tool when it comes in contact with a surface with moderate to high degree of force. These marks are distinctive patterns which are bestowed with both class and individual characteristics.</p> <p>When a suspect uses a tool to commit an unscrupulous act, such explicit marks are commonly discernible on one or more artifacts of the crime scene. These marks may then be traced back to the specific tool and ultimately to the owner of that tool.</p> <p>Toolmarks have the potential to place the suspect at the crime scene.</p> Jasjeet Kaur Gurvinder Kaur Sumanjeet Kaur Tribhuvan Kumar Pathak Copyright (c) 3 1 Mr An examination of the impact of domestic abuse on Qatari women’s mental health https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1693 <p>This study evaluates the impact of domestic abuse on the mental health of Qatari women by assessing the levels of depression, anxiety, and PTSD. The research involved administering a number of validated English language scales that were back-translated from English to Arabic to ensure reliability of the items being measured. The scales used were the Conflict Tactical Scale (CTS-2) which assesses the type and the frequency of domestic abuse, the Economic Abuse Scale (SEA-12) while mental health issues such as Depression Anxiety and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) were measured by the PHQ-9, thee Tylor Manifest Anxiety Scale and the PCL-C civilian version&nbsp;respectively. Consent for involvement in the study was given by 350 Qatari women who have experienced some form of domestic abuse within the past 12 months. This paper presents the descriptive analysis of the results. This study shows that Qatari females who have experienced domestic abuse within the past 12 months suffer from a broad spectrum of domestic abuse behaviors; The mean score for negotiation abuse was&nbsp;29.86 for psychological aggression it 53.71, for physical assault it was 30.49 and the mean score for sexual coercion was 15.80. The economic abuse subscale shows a mean score of 2.58 indicating high levels of economic exploitation. The anxiety score reported results showing that nearly 50% of women scored for very severe anxiety. In regards to Depression scores nearly over 10% exhibited moderate to severe depression and 6% suffer from severe depression. Finally, PTSD scores revealed that nearly 50% of the victims indicated high severity of PTSD symptoms. The descriptive results of this study lend themselves to the emerging literature on victims of domestic abuse within the middle east and aim to opening up further research and dialog into this under exposed area of research within the region.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> khalid Al-Naama Copyright (c) 3 1 Case report: planned complex suicide by self-hanging and wrist- cutting https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1692 <p><em>&nbsp; Abstract</em>— Complex suicide defines the type of suicide involving using more than one suicide methods to lead to death. Second method is used to escape from pain or to prevent failure of the first method.</p> <p>Here -in this poster- we present a case of complex suicide of an old man (70 years) by self-hanging and wrist- cutting.</p> Abdelhamid Addou Copyright (c) 3 1 Case report: planned complex suicide by self-hanging and wrist- cutting https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1690 <p><em>Abstract</em>— Complex suicide defines the type of suicide involving using more than one suicide methods to lead to death. Second method is used to escape from pain or to prevent failure of the first method.</p> <p>Here -in this poster-we present a case of complex suicide of an old man (70 years) by self-hanging and wrist- cutting.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><em>&nbsp; &nbsp;</em></p> Abdelhamid Addou Copyright (c) 3 1 Abuse of the mentally handicapped leading to death (case presentation) https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1683 <pre id="tw-target-text" class="tw-data-text tw-text-large XcVN5d tw-ta" dir="ltr" data-placeholder="Traduction"><span class="Y2IQFc" lang="en">The ill-treatment of the mentally disabled is one of the hidden phenomena that are difficult to discover, especially when the perpetrator is close to the fact that the victims cannot report due to their mental disability on the one hand and for fear of punishment on the other. We conducted a routine forensic medical examination of the victim (A) who allegedly fell from the stairs of the house, where we discovered signs of continuous torture, after a continuous and in-depth investigation by the judicial authorities with the victim and the suspects, each of whom insisted on denying. Six months later, we received the same victim, a dead body, to carry out the forensic autopsy. The cause of death was the result of continuous torture. It was revealed that the culprit was the stepmother.</span></pre> توفيق خداوي Copyright (c) 3 1 The Impact of quarantine on forensic medical examinations. A comparative study with the normal period https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1655 <p>The Covid-19 pandemic has pushed most countries in the world to restrict their residents to a quarantine period of 4 to 12 weeks. Studies in China show that health measures such as, quarantine (or isolation) affect mental health. The psychological effects of isolation have already been described in scientific studies (polar expeditions, diving, and imprisonment). Some recent studies have shown that isolation can lead to the emergence of mood disorders, boredom, tension, and lack of sleep, especially for psychologically or socially weak groups. Anxiety, PTSD, depression, suicidal behavior, addiction, and domestic violence are all described as isolation effects. Nevertheless, the severity of the sanitary isolation carried out during the COVID-19 pandemic is unprecedented. Since the fear of infection, the restrictions imposed on long isolation periods, the period of mourning, the concern for relatives in the hospital whose visits are prohibited, the severity of these complications is increased. The objective of this study is to evaluate the forensic medical examination during the quarantine period and its impact, especially in terms of the number of examinations, the type of victims, the location of the assault and the nature of the violence...</p> <p>Instruments and method:</p> <p>We conducted a retrospective descriptive study, comparing people who received forensic medical examinations at the Forensic Medicine Department of Sidi Bel Abbes (Algeria) during the 4-week quarantine period (12 March 2020 to 11 April 2020) with those received at the department during the same period of the previous year (normal period).</p> <p>Results:</p> <p>During the quarantine, there was an increase in the number of forensic medical examinations, especially concerning domestic violence within the home and towards neighbors, particularly in overcrowded populated areas. But sexual assaults decreased significantly at the start of the quarantine. It was also noted that the number of victims of road and traffic accidents dropped down.</p> <p>Conclusion:</p> <p>The quarantine period can have a significant impact, especially on mood disorders, which leads to an increase in the frequency of violence, particularly in the family environment and neighbors, and those at the level of crowded neighborhoods. The sexual assaults were no more dangerous than it was in a normal period. Despite that, there is a decrease in the number of victims of road and traffic accidents related to the restriction of movement; especially between cities, except for people with a license (doctor, shopkeeper, etc.).</p> Mohamed Amine BOUMELIK مونية مجبر فاطمة أريد Copyright (c) 3 1 Digital Forensic Evidence Inspection as evidence of digital criminal evidence in cybercrime (a study in comparative legislation). https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1688 <p>The first procedural problem that can face cybercrime is what is represented in the set of legal and practical challenges related to proving these crimes, especially the obstacles that stand in the way of the investigation authorities in order to carry out the search and prospecting process. Colliding with the normal rules applied in the traditional crime, which is completely different from the cyber crime committed in the virtual environment... This crime that we find committed in an immaterial and invisible electronic theater is completely different from this traditional theater on the one hand, and on the other hand and in many Sometimes the perpetrators do not leave any traces behind them as a result of the accuracy and speed of their perpetration, and the immediate rush to erase all the traces they leave behind, with the possibility of concealing the evidence that can be obtained after the direct occurrence of this crime, which made the research and investigation authorities enter into an endless cycle of all these Unfamiliar and previously unknown facts.<br>And if countries, at the beginning of the growth of the phenomenon of cybercrime, have found themselves forced to submit to and rely on existing penal-criminal texts, whether substantive or procedural, and this is so that they can track down the perpetrators, and avoid the issue of their impunity, in addition to the fact that they have no legal rules Prepared in advance to be compatible with the nature of these new crimes after an amazing development occurred in the field of informatics, and the accompanying repercussions that had a clear impact on the modern means by which cybercrime is committed, as well as the location of the crime and the type of perpetrators who commit it, which prompted many countries The Anglo-Saxon and Latin language calls for a systematic re-evaluation of many of the familiar traditional procedures, with the search for new formulas and methods for the totality of penal laws and the laws of criminal procedures - penal procedures - to make them commensurate with the nature of these new, advanced, high-tech crimes. Indeed, all means of proof were immediately developed. Criminal - penal - in a way that makes it compatible with the scientific facts capable of avoiding every youthful shortcoming or incapacity there before.<br>Since the legislator or regulator has to strive to expand the scope of application of all traditional investigation procedures to include cybercrime, so he wants to highlight to us all the practical problems and obstacles generated by the procedures for searching and investigating these crimes, and for this we find that the inspection procedure as a digital criminal evidence needs To develop and improve from time to time, and this is in order to commensurate with the nature of cybercrime, and the inspection in itself is only a means by which physical proof is intended to obtain all physical evidence of the crime, but - the inspection procedure - and due to the nature of the electronic environment makes It is incompatible with the immaterial privacy of computer programs and data, and all data on the Internet that have no physical appearance in this external world.</p> عبد العزيز خنفوسي Copyright (c) 3 1 المسؤولية الطبية الجراحية ، الخطآ الطبي و Covid 19 (دراسة حالات) https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1661 <p><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">العمل الذي يلاقي الأطباء ا الأطباء ألجراحين ا، تزداد تفاقما رغم التقدم التكنولوجي المبهر، الذي يكون أحيانا نقمة لهم.</span></span></p> <p><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">ادة لى ا الوضع (Covid 19)</span></span></p> <p><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">هذه الصعوبات، احة الرحم (التي تبدو منذ الوهلة الأولى) لتشخيص و العلاج بالنسبة للجراح النساء كذلك لجراح طب الأطفال.</span></span></p> <p><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">.</span></span></p> <p><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">الظروف المسؤولية الطبية قائمة بالطبيب اقمه إلى العدالة.</span></span></p> MOHAMMED DJILALI MERZOUG Copyright (c) 3 1 ال New criminality: https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1684 <p><strong>Abstract</strong>: The crime appeared with the appearance of man, and the methods of committing it developed with his development, and the penal legislation kept pace with this development; And that is through the development of new punitive and procedural legal texts that keep pace with the development of the material acts of crime, and thus the traditional and then organized crime appeared, after which the newly created crime appeared, whose name was derived from the methods used to commit it and which depend mainly on scientific and technical development and economic progress, a crime that results in risks A new wish that did not result from other crimes; What necessitates the existence of special penal provisions to confront these risks.</p> <p>Accordingly, this study aims to show the development of penal legislation in Algeria, whether punitive or procedural texts, through which the Algerian legislator tried to keep pace with the methods used in committing material acts of newly created crimes and the resulting security risks, both at the level of criminalization and punishment or at the level of investigation and investigation, to reach The adequacy of these texts to keep pace with the emerging criminality</p> نبيل ونوغي Copyright (c) 3 1 الآثار المادية الناتجة عن الجرائم والجدل حول حفظ تلك الآثار بين الجهات المختصة وذات العلاقة https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1665 <p>في الواقع العملي اثناء القيام بممارسة اعمال الخبرة والتعامل مع الجهات المختصة مثل النيابات والمحاكم والبحث الجنائي لاحظنا خلاف وجدل مستمر بين خبراء الادلة الجنائية وبين سلطة التحقيق وجمع الاستدلال المحقين والقضاة وضباط البحث الجنائي وهذا الخلاف يدور حول الاثار المادية المتخلفة في مسارح الجرائم والجدل بخصوص حفظ وبقاء الاثار المادية وماهي الاثار التي تبقى وتحفظ لدى الخبراء وماهي الاثار التي ترسل مع التقارير للنيابات والمحاكم وتكرر هذا الخلاف&nbsp; كثيراً بين الخبراء ورؤساء ووكلاء واعضاء النيابات وتمثل في مطالبة النيابات للخبراء بأرسال اثار مادية يرى الخبراء ان هناك منافع واهداف من بقائها وحفظها لديهم وان الاثار المادية والعمل عليها هو صلب اختصاص الأدلة الجنائية وبالتالي يطلق علي الادلة الجنائية ادارة المحرزات وبالتالي&nbsp; هم الجهة المخولة بأدارة الاثار المادية من لحظة العثور عليها في مسارح الجرائم مروراً بجميع مرحل التعامل مع الاثر حتى حفظه وبقاءه لدى جهة الخبرة</p> <p>التي قامت بالتعامل المباشر مع الاثر ولذا خطرت لي فكرة توضيح هذا اللبس وحسم الجدل المستمر بين الخبراء والمحققين</p> ناصر احمد حسين الشافعي Copyright (c) 3 1 Cyber Security and Drones Forensics https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1677 <p>With the entertainment and ease brought up with new technologies emerging comes a certain level of anxiety in what security risks these technologies poses. Although it is started as, a weird thing to watch, but nowadays watching a drone flying above your neighborhood is a common thing to see. Due to its ability to capture amazing photos and videos from an aerial view, people are using it widely. However, it presents a serious violation of other people’s privacy; obviously, no one would like to see a drone flying above his house taking photos of him and his family. However, what makes using the drone worse or even catastrophic is flying it near an airport, endangering the lives of airplane passengers! Rules and regulations are enforced to control the use of such drones, but what if a line was crossed. There are some examples around the world, where drones where used in committing some serious crimes. How can a digital investigator validate that this drone has flew over a restricted area or was used to commit a crime? For this drone, forensics is a necessity field to explore and identify the possible ways of extracting valuable information from the drones. Because of the diverse nature of drones that the law enforcement investigator can face, the project has explored different brands of drones and how it is possible to examine them forensically. The results extracted from this exploration provided a great potential and showed that it is possible to identify the owner of the drone in certain ways as well as identifying the flight path of the drone in some cases. Furthermore, more work could be done in this field to develop a tool to automate the process of examining and extracting information from the drone systems.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Hussein ALMukhles Copyright (c) 3 1 أسس وقواعد التصوير الجنائي https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1667 <p><strong>أهمية التصوير الجنائي لاتقل عن اي تخصص اخر في الأدلة الجنائية ولذلك تم انشاء أدارة مستقلة للتصوير الجنائي لما له من أهمية في الأثبات الجنائي وكون جميع الإدارات لا تستغني عن التصوير الجنائي ولكن هناك قواعد وأسس لهذا العلم يجب الإلمام بها ولأهمية التصوير الجنائي رأيت ان افرد له&nbsp; موضوع يوضح الاسس والقواعد التي يجب الألمام&nbsp; بها&nbsp;&nbsp;</strong></p> ناصر احمد حسين الشافعي Copyright (c) 3 1 Newly Validated HPLC-DAD Method for Simultaneous Determination of Tramadol with its main metabolite (ODT) / Pregabalin in human plasma https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1674 <p>A new high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method in this study was developed, optimized and validated for simultaneous determination of Tramadol , O-Desmethyl-cis-tramadol hydrochloride and pregabalin in spiked human plasma sample . Separation was operated on A Zorbax eclips- C18 (150 mm ×4.6 mm, 5 μm) (USA) linked with a Zorbax - C8 (250 mm ×4.6 mm, 5 μm) columns (USA) with&nbsp; mobile phase gradient pumped at 1.5 ml /min was used to elute the analytes from the column. Mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile: buffer (0.01M) potassium dihydrogenphosphate with triethylamine (pH 4.5) (35: 65, v/v). The gradient was initiated by 65% phosphate buffer in the first six minutes and subsequently 50% phosphate buffer for the last ten minutes. Quantitation was achieved with UV detection at 218 nm. The assay was validated in the concentration range of 250 – 2500 ng / mL, 250 – 2500 ng / mL and 2500 – 40000 ng / mL&nbsp; for tramadol , O-Desmethyl-cis-tramadol hydrochloride and pregabalin respectively. Liquid liquid extraction were performed by using Methylene chloride and Methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE) for pregabalin and tramadol respectively. &nbsp;The developed method was proved to be specific, robust and accurate for the determination of the studied drugs in human plasma.</p> Nour Abdelhakk Copyright (c) 3 1 Cyber Security and Drones Forensics https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1670 <p>With the entertainment and ease brought up with new technologies emerging comes a certain level of anxiety in what security risks these technologies poses. Although it is started as, a weird thing to watch, but nowadays watching a drone flying above your neighborhood is a common thing to see. Due to its ability to capture amazing photos and videos from an aerial view, people are using it widely. However, it presents a serious violation of other people’s privacy; obviously, no one would like to see a drone flying above his house taking photos of him and his family. However, what makes using the drone worse or even catastrophic is flying it near an airport, endangering the lives of airplane passengers! Rules and regulations are enforced to control the use of such drones, but what if a line was crossed. There are some examples around the world, where drones where used in committing some serious crimes. How can a digital investigator validate that this drone has flew over a restricted area or was used to commit a crime? For this drone, forensics is a necessity field to explore and identify the possible ways of extracting valuable information from the drones. Because of the diverse nature of drones that the law enforcement investigator can face, the project has explored different brands of drones and how it is possible to examine them forensically. The results extracted from this exploration provided a great potential and showed that it is possible to identify the owner of the drone in certain ways as well as identifying the flight path of the drone in some cases. Furthermore, more work could be done in this field to develop a tool to automate the process of examining and extracting information from the drone systems.</p> Hussein ALMukhles Copyright (c) 3 1 New Fluorescent Powders for the Development of Latent Fingermarks https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1668 <p>New and inexpensive fluorescent powders have been prepared and used for the development of latent fingermarks on non-porous and semi porous surfaces. 10 mM solutions of rhodamine 6G and basic yellow 40 dyes were used to prepare dye coated fluorescent silica gel powders. Results of these new fluorescent powders were compared with results of commercially available fluorescent powders. The new powders have shown results comparable with those of commercially available powders so can be easily prepared and used as an alternate, if commercial fluorescent powders are not available.</p> Muhammad Irfan Ashiq Mubashar-ur-Rehman Sardar Ali Wattoo Muhammad Amjad Mohammad Ashraf Tahir Copyright (c) 3 1 فن إعداد التقارير واهميتها في نقل الصورة من مسرح الجريمة وتوضيح الرؤية للجهات المختصة https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1666 <p>&nbsp;اعداد وصياغة التقارير فن لا يجيده الا القليل وعلم بحد ذاته لمعرفة هذا الفن وتعلم الطريقة الصحيحة لاعداد وصياغة التقارير تفضل بالاطلاع على هذا المقال&nbsp;</p> ناصر احمد حسين الشافعي Copyright (c) 3 1