Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine <p style="text-align: justify;">The Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences &amp; Forensic Medicine (AJFSFM) is an open access (CC BY-NC), peer-reviewed, and free of charge journal dedicated to the development and application of forensic science and forensic medical knowledge and research for the purpose of law and justice across the globe. The AJFSFM is an official publication (ISSN 1658-6786) of the Arab Society for Forensic Sciences and Forensic Medicine (ASFSFM) and is published biannually by Naif Arab University for Security Sciences (NAUSS), Riyadh – Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.</p> en-US <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;You must read and accept the copyright terms and conditions(<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">click here for&nbsp;copyright terms</a>).</p> Wed, 29 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0300 OJS 60 Minor Rape and Murder Case Resolved through Massive Screening of Suspects using Forensic DNA Analysis; A Case Study of Minor Sexual Assault and Murder <p>A report about the missing of an eight years old girl was registered at Police Station Darahma of District Dera Ghazi Khan. On the next day dead body of minor girl was found in the nearby wheat crop fields with her dopatta tightly entangled around her neck. Autopsy findings revealed death due to asphyxia and a strong suspicion of sexual assault before murder. Victim’s vaginal swabs, clothing, nail swabs and reference samples of possible 124 suspects were collected for DNA comparison. The objective was to determine the presence of any biological evidence of this incident from submitted items and DNA matching with the submitted suspects.Through serological analysis a semen stain was identified on submitted trousers. Differential DNA extraction was used to separate male and female DNA fractions from semen stain. The concentration of human/human male DNA in the extract was determined through Real Time PCR technique. The genetic markers including 15 autosomal STR markers and 1 sex determining locus, amelogenin were amplified using Identifiler plus kit. The amplified products were genotyped through capillary electrophoresis using Genetic Analyzer 3500. DNA profiles of suspects were developed similarly by the very next day after submission of buccal swab standards. The DNA profile of an unknown male individual was developed from the semen stain obtained from the trousers of minor girl. DNA profile of suspect no. 110 matched the DNA profile obtained from semen stain on the trousers of minor girl.</p> Nasir Siddique Copyright (c) A Quantitative Approach to Forensic Handwriting Examination: A Review <p>In Forensics, Handwriting examination is an integral part of the Questioned Document Examination. The identification of individual characteristics in handwriting examination is almost decisive in determining the authorship. Where the writer is identified by their individual characters which imprints on the writing surface during the writing process. These distinctive features begin to develop from childhood when the child begins to learn and write and remain visible in the writing habits of everyone throughout life and serves as individual identifiers of handwriting. The handwriting verification process is still in developing mode despite advancement of technology and new methods for handwriting examination and analysis. Forensic handwriting examiners are currently employing new handwriting verification tools and techniques that will provide them with a reliable scientific result with minimum human intervention.</p> Hemant Kumar Copyright (c) A rare underwater photographic documentation of a suicidal drowning with tied ankle: A case report <p>Drowning is a frequent cause of accidental deaths and injuries, resulting in a significant but preventable global health problem. An accurate and reliable method of diagnosing death by drowning is a crucial requirement in forensic autopsies that aim to exclude all other causes of death. Aim: To represent a case of drowning, with depression as a risk factor. Case Presentation: A 30-year-old adult man drowned and accidentally discovered at the bottom of seawater by recreational divers. They photographed the body before drawing it out of water. The body was transferred to the general hospital for a forensic autopsy. The cadaver displayed waterlogged skin, advanced putrefaction with discoloration of the skin, and gaseous distension, only a couple of hours after drawing out the body from the water. Conclusion: Underwater photographic documentation of the drowned person was extremely useful in the current case.</p> Mahrous Ibrahim Copyright (c) The power of the judge to accept the digital directory <p>&nbsp;In this study we clarify the role of the judge in the assessment and examination of digital evidence before pronouncing the judgment so as not to exempt the convict and not to convict him, and the criminal judge's power&nbsp; to accept digital evidence&nbsp; governed by the proof systems in the world, and through our study of various comparative legislation there is a criminal evidence system&nbsp; Free (taken by the Latin states, primarily France), which is subject to the judge's personal conviction, provided that it works with the rules of reason and logic, here is a positive path where he can draw digital evidence through his orders to search and disclose it through access to the files of the accused that contains the letters And conversations, a criminal judge may order the operator of the system to provide the necessary information such as confidential password and operating codes and verify their legality for admission as a digital guide.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp; Through this study, we found that there are shortcomings in both systems: for legislation using the free evidence system, or the personal conviction of a criminal judge to accept digital evidence&nbsp; does not address the scientific value of the guide but instead discusses the circumstances in which this evidence was found,&nbsp; on the contrary , legislation that has a restrictive or legal system of proof, the judge's power is limited in ascertaining the existence of evidence in accordance with the law, for its admission as evidence.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp; There is a mixed evidentiary system in which a judge adheres to the digital evidence set forth in the legal text first, and in the case of a legal void the search in the digital directory in his hands to be careful to obtain a valid digital evidence that is not tainted by any error so that it excludes all the digital evidence That are obtained illegally.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp; We can be said that the power of a criminal judge to assess digital evidence must balance two important issues: the value of the evidence on the one hand and the question of the circumstances and&nbsp; in which this evidence was found, so that the scientific truth would conform with the legal truth.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp; This is why we emphasize the need to establish judges in the area of dealing with digital evidence&nbsp; on the one hand and to achieve cooperation between the judiciary with telecommunication companies and the Internet to restrict the correct information&nbsp; that the evidence is authentic and the judicial decisions are based on them.</p> سامية خواثرة Copyright (c) Spike in Mental Health issues among students due to COVID-19 Pandemic: A Review <p><strong>Background:<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></strong></p> <p>The outbreak of COVID-19 has led to a global public health and economic crisis, especially in developing countries.</p> <p>It is associated with high levels of psychological distress that, in many cases, would meet the threshold of clinical relevance. While psychological support is being provided to general population, young adolescent student's mental health requires attention too.</p> <p>Keeping this in mind, existing literature on COVID-19 outbreak pertinent to mental health was studied and published articles were studied thoroughly and summarised. This review highlighted the possible causes of mental health issues among the students during this pandemic.</p> <p><strong>Methods:<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></strong></p> <p>A search was conducted on PubMed, Medline, Embase, Scopus, Google Scholar and Web of Science with relevant terms, selection was based on a predetermined criteria.</p> <p><strong>Results:<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></strong></p> <p>Relatively high rates of symptoms of anxiety (18.92% to 71%), depression (9% to 78.7%), PTSD (2.7% to 16.3%) and stress (14.46% to 88%) are reported among the students during the coronavirus pandemic from 22 countries. Risk factors include female gender, presence of chronic/psychiatric illnesses and frequent exposure to social media/news concerning COVID.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></strong></p> <p>Mitigating the effects of COVID-19 on mental health is a public health priority.</p> <p>The pandemic situation and onerous measures such as lockdown has<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp; </span>negative impacts on higher education. We conclude that there is urgent requirement to develop interventions and preventive strategies to address the mental health of students. There is a need for more representative research from other affected countries.</p> Shubham Goswami, Soujanya Chakraborty, Sudip Pal, Soumeek Chowdhuri Copyright (c) “PALATAL RUGAE : NEW PATHWAY LEADING TOWARDS FAMILIAL HIERARCHY” <p>In the era of various technical and methodological advances, human identification becomes a herculean task especially in mass disasters cases where in the pile of flesh; one has to distinguish among own and others. Similar to fingerprint, palatal rugae also vary from person to person and may help to find the links between generations similar to DNA.&nbsp;</p> <p>This study aimed to carry out a comparative evaluation of palatal rugae, finger prints and lip prints in 3 consecutive generations.</p> <p>For this photograph of palatal rugae, ink pad, dark coloured lipstick, white paper and cellophane tape were used. Participants were explained about the study and its purpose, their written consent was obtained. Photographs of palatal rugae were obtained by adjusting proper position, light and intraoral mirror. Fingerprints of hand fingers and thumbs were recorded on white paper using ink while lip prints were recorded by using cellophane tape and lipstick. With the help magnifying glass and marking pencil all the patterns were traced and analysed for repetition. Statistical analysis was done by using SPSS 20.0 version. Patterns of finger prints (66.7%) and palatal rugae (73.3%) showed repetition with maternal side while lip prints patterns showed more similarity (63.6%) with paternal side. Thus it can be concluded that palatal rugae &amp; fingerprints are inherited as a maternal trait while lip prints tend to have a paternal influence.</p> Dr. Himanshu D Dhanodkar Copyright (c) Silver Nanoparticles, as a boon to nanotechnology- A review comprising of synthesis, characterization and application of nanotechnology in Forensic science. <p><strong>Background</strong>- Over the past couple of decades nanotechnology had helped advancements in all the fields like biomedical, biological and chemical sciences. Due to the development in the methods to synthesize nanoparticles in different shapes and sizes, nanotechnology is ruling in the field like medicine and agriculture.</p> <p><strong>Introduction</strong>- Silver nanoparticle has various important chemical and physical properties and because of this reason it is being studied widely all over the world to improve its application. These days so many methods are there to synthesize nanoparticle depending upon the usage, requirement and the availability. Nanoparticles synthesized by different- different methods have their own advantages and applications. Researches on these nanoparticles are always being carried upon to develop a technology with maximum benefits and minimal risk to environmental and human health as excess of the silver nanoparticles are cytotoxic, and unregulated discharge in the environment may have effects on both aquatic and terrestrial biota.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>- This article discusses multiple methods for the synthesis of nanoparticles, advantages of different shapes and sizes and lastly the application of nanotechnology in Forensic science.</p> <p>Keywords- Silver nanoparticles, Nanotechnology, Synthesis, Characterization, Forensic applications</p> Ragini Pandey Copyright (c) the vulnerability of Laser Printing and Fugitive Ink as security features in Banking Cheques: Case Study <p>Cheques are considered to be one of the most secured way of financial transaction due to the various layers of security features introduced in the cheques. These security features were considered to be indissoluble for the criminals. Conventional cheque forgery included total duplication of the cheque wherein it was observed that the printing consisted of single process viz entirely laser or inkjet. Additionally forged cheques were devoid of any erasure and if present could be detected at ease with a stereo microscope. The E13Bfonts in the clear band were an area which the forger would consider untouchable because of the uniqueness of the fonts coupled with the magnetic properties of the ink used. However, it has been observed that this trend have undergone a paradigm shift with high level of complicacy introduced in the cheque forgery. The present study consists of the complicacies involved in a forged cheque especially the compromise in the security features. The worrying trend being&nbsp; the compromised fugitive inks used for security background as well as the E13B alteration which have been so carefully effected upon that it was near to being undetectable. A detailed analysis has been presented which is a cumulative compilation of the study of the various compromised security features available in a genuine cheque. This paper would provide an enlightening chapter in the forensic examination of recent trend in cheque forgery.</p> Naulak Lian Paite Copyright (c) Novel microsatellite DNA markers for Indian Rat snake (Ptyas mucosa) <p>Thirteen microsatellite markers were developed for one of endangered snake species Indian Rat snake (<em>Ptyas mucosa</em>) in Indian ecosystems that are now subject to much restoration efforts. All loci were polymorphic when tested across 15 individuals. The average number of alleles per locus varied from 4 to 7 (mean 5.2). Observed and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.76 to 1.00 and 0.59 to 0.94, respectively and the average polymorphic information content is 0.664 were identified demonstrating the utility of these markers for the investigation of the population genetic structure and diversity of this species.</p> naga jogayya kothakota Copyright (c) Forensic Microbiology- A Crucial Aid in Forensic Investigation <p>With an increase in research in the field of microbial forensics, researchers found that it can be used to determine the post mortem interval (PMI). This can be done by sampling the microbes found on the body, extracting their DNA, which is used for identification and quantification of microbes present at a different time interval and hence the determination of PMI. PMI estimation using microbial forensics has advantages over other methods like entomology, acarology, etc. However, further research is to be done to overcome the knowledge gaps in the science of using microbial succession for the estimation of PMI.</p> Niharika Gujji, Vaishnavi Hedau, ARUN GHUGE, Sandeep Sangle, Shweta Gaiki Copyright (c) LINEQUALITY OF WRITING STROKES IN SUBSEQUENT GENERATIONS OF A PHOTOCOPIED DOCUMENT: A PRELIMINARY STUDY OF VARIATIONS DUE TO WRITING INSTRUMENTS <p>Line quality plays an important role in handwriting identification and forgery detection both in original documents as well as their photocopies. The paper deals with the study of morphological variations in line quality characteristics of multi-generational photocopied handwriting (up-to the fifth generation of reproduction) produced by thirty four different writing instruments. Purpose of the study was to find out the extent to which such line quality features are dependent on the nature of the writing instrument used to prepare the original; as well as, the possibility of their survival (or distortion) and consequently their detection in the multigenerational photocopies.The overall effect of writing instrument on morphology is seen and felt in varying degrees in photocopier reproductions of all the five generations. Pen characteristics such as striations, ink gooping, pen skips, ink bleeding/ feathering, nib marks and lead particledeposition have caused significant difference in morphology of stroke’s line in photocopy. The effect is much more pronounced in some of the features in photocopies beyond the second generation, there are other features such as ink feathering and pen skips which could not be reproduced with sufficient clarity in any photocopy generation.</p> Om Prakash Jasuja Copyright (c) The Legal Nature and Legality of Crime Prediction by Artificial Intelligence <p>Predicting a crime before it occurs is not considered unseen, but rather a probable prediction, it may even be probable, concerned with analyzing a large amount of data according to algorithms prepared in advance for this purpose, that modern technology produced by artificial intelligence has had a great impact in aborting crime early. The fight against criminality is a necessary and vital matter that is renewed and developed according to the reality of its society, and the curtain does not fall - at the same time - on the jurisprudential theories that have always lurked with the criminal, sometimes analyzing him psychologically, sometimes socially, and sometimes biologically, in order to assess his criminal seriousness, and apply appropriate measures to prevent his return to crime. Once again, the algorithms - which are the backbone of AI - are taking on the task more precisely, faster, and cost less. However, the novelty of this method has added a kind of ambiguity in determining its legal nature and legality. With regard to the legal nature, we find that they are no more than security measures that are included in the duties of the arresting officers, because the prediction of a crime precedes its commission of course, and therefore no inference or investigation procedures of any kind can be taken regarding it. As for the legality of using artificial intelligence to predict the crime despite its risks affecting the constitutional right to protect personal data, however, those risks are quickly dispelled in the case in which the legislator is involved in enacting criminal protection for that data, as well as granting law enforcement officers the appropriate restrictive authority to be able to activate This new technology aims to reduce crime in the near future.</p> Mahmoud Salama Abdelmoneim Elsherif Copyright (c) 2021 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine Tue, 28 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0300 Covid19 Vaccines: The Need of the Hour <p>Coronavirus has invaded the whole world despite all necessary precautions. Several strategies and restrictions have been imposed to overcome the disease since the outbreak of covid19. To tackle this epidemic, getting vaccinated is the only effective way. Several vaccine types have been tested for covid19, including nucleic acid-based, protein-based, and whole virus-based vaccines. The clinical trial phase of several vaccines is underway, however; twenty vaccines have been used on a wide scale throughout the world, out of which six vaccines are granted in India. The current article is mainly focused on vaccines approved for use, their trials, and efficacy and how they have been used during the pandemic to shed light on disease control.</p> Megha Sapkota, ARUN GHUGE, Sandeep Sangle Copyright (c) An Adolescence Pregnant with an Intact Hymen: Case Report <p>Child sexual abuse is a public health problem due to either itself or its consequences. Adolescence pregnancy is in the front row of these unwanted situations. On the other hand, it is hard to reveal the sexual crime by forensic gynecologic examination which is based on only visual inspection of genitalia. Anatomic variations of genitalia always can make the physician’s mind confusing for making diagnosis of rape.</p> <p>A teenager girl was registered with our hospital with allegation of sexual abuse. Although it was easy to figure out her pregnancy due to shape of her abdomen, an intact hymen of her was determined after the examination. Additionally, she had history of usage of methamphetamine nearly 20 times. She was consulted with gynecology department to show the pregnancy and control health status of both the fetus and the pregnant due to substance abuse. Ultrasound imagining (US) revealed that she had a 4 months and 3 days pregnancy without any abnormalities.</p> <p>The goal of this study is to draw attention to the physicians from anatomic variations of hymen. Thus, it can be said that it is not always easy to make diagnosis of sexual intercourse. The Practitioner must present multidisciplinary approach and develop his/her knowledge and skills of genital examination.</p> Serbülent KILIC Copyright (c) PHOTOGRAMMETRIC STUDY OF PROSOPIC INDEX IN CENTRAL INDIA FOR SEXUAL DIMORPHISM <p>Anthropometric data of facial dimensions plays a vital role in facial reconstructive surgeries, forensics and medicine. This study is aimed to observe the variations of Prosopic Index among people of Central India and to compare the findings of the study with previously published data using 2D photogrammetry. The present study was done on 150 adults with equal number of males and females in Sagar district of Madhya Pradesh, India. Prosopic Index was obtained by taking linear measurements using ImageJ image processing software. Parametric t-test was applied to obtain <em>p </em>values for studying significant differences between mean values of Prosopic Index for both the gender. Mean PROSOPIC INDEX value for male was observed to be 83.47±4.81 and for females 78.94±4.01. It can be concluded from the present study that there is sexual dimorphism in Prosopic Index of the individuals of Central India in which the males have mostly Euryprosopic face (Broad) whereas females have mostly Hypereuryprosopic face (very broad).</p> Manish Malhotra, Bhupeshkumar Nanhe, Navjot Kaur Kanwal Copyright (c) Giving Abey Zam Zam from unlabelled and improperly stored bottles can cause corrosive acid injuries? A unique case presentation of a rare occurrence <p>Accidental exposure to toxic chemicals is major concerns to all of us, and particularly for our children. Many households in different parts of the globe store chemicals/drugs right from medicine, toiletries, corrosives etc. in bottles of various size, shape and substances. Many a time such bottles are either newly purchased or are an empty bottles of previously stored liquids or other contents. Such used bottles or containers are the frequently used for preserving corrosives or household cleaning substances in homes.</p> <p>&nbsp; In present case a 3 months old male infant was brought to our pediatric emergency unit with history of difficulty of breathing, blackening of tongue, with sudden onset of crying and inconsolability after being given water from a plastic bottle by his aunt. After detailed assessment &nbsp;it was found that infant has blackish color corrosive injury in and around mouth involving anterior half of tongue, and lips with evidence of trickling drop type corrosive injuries over right side of neck and right supra clavicular region. &nbsp;Internally, except epiglottic edema no other significant findings noted. On follow up examination, complication was noticed as process of healing of corrosive injury in and around mouth as fish mouth appearance. On investigation, it was found that the child was sick with fever for which he was given holy water Zam Zam as a remedy to ailment and blessings of god. However, it turned out to be actually a battery acid namely sulphuric acid stored improperly by father of the infant .</p> Dr Laxmi Shobhavat, Manoj B Parchake , Shankar S Subramanian , Harish Pathak , Nilesh Keshav Tumram, Avinash Shelke Copyright (c) Sex estimation from Histomorphometric Analysis of Cortical bone samples of Nigerians <p><strong>Background</strong>: Estimation of sex of unknown skeletal remains is a daunting challenge when only fragmented bones are available. For this reasons, there is need to study population specific histomorphometric features of bones to provide useful data for the process of identification.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>:To estimate sex from six histomorphometric parameters of cortical bones&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The samples comprised non pathologic bones collected from 29 subjects (12 females and 17 males) between the ages 35 to 85 years during orthopaedic procedure. The modified Frost’s manual method was used to prepare the histologic sections of the cortical bones. The parameters evaluated were number of primary osteons (Os-p), number of Secondary osteons (Os-s), Osteon fragments (Os-f), Non- Haversian Canal (N-Hc), Area of Haversian canal (Area Hc) and Haversian Canal diameter (HCD). The data obtained were analysed using SPSS version 23.0, test for sex differences were done using student T test, Stepwise discriminant function was used to formulate a predictive model for sex.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The average Os-p, Os-s, Os-f, N-hc, Area HC and HCD were 2.85 ±0.86,3.92 ±1.26,6.08 ±1.37, 2.23 ±0.66, 53.43 ±5.55 and 7.85±0.41 for males and 1.11 ±0.56, 0.33±0.17, 2.44 ±0.67, 54.37 ±6.04 and 7.426±0.35 for females respectively. The average value of Os-s was significantly different in males and females (p=0.04). Stepwise discriminant function analysis showed Os-s could be used to estimate sex. 71.4% of our samples were correctly predicted based on sex .&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Our study shows secondary osteons (Os-s) could be used to estimate sex in a Nigerian population.</p> Loveday Ese Oghenemavwe, Clinton Orupabo, Dr Copyright (c) A Preliminary Study on Coordination between Incident Response Teams in Fire Scene Management <p>A crime scene holds crucial information of the sequence of events leading to its occurrence. It aids law enforcement agencies to solve the puzzle by amalgamating the individual pieces of evidence. First responders are the ones who observe the scene in its pristine condition and coordination between incident response teams supports enhanced crime scene management. At the fire scene, the coordination between fire department personnel and police officers helps in fire and arson investigation in countries like India where specialized fire investigators are scarce. This study was conducted on personnel from Fire and Police departments respectively, to elicit their views on incident response teams in fire scene investigation. It showed that coordination between departments needs to be strengthened and views and opinions need to be shared amongst personnel. Bureaucracy should encourage and maintain guidelines for coordinating between agencies during investigation for better delivery of impartial reasoning in the criminal justice system.</p> Glorita Fernandes Copyright (c) The misuse of nitrous oxide: a widespread high-risk practice among French youth <p>Cannabis is the most widely used illicit substance in France, 10 times more than cocaine or ecstasy. The effects, risks and consequences of these drugs are widely known to scientists, health professionals and society in general. However, a new drug, this time legal, has been causing havoc in recent years, sometimes called the drug of poor people, whose risks and consequences remain poorly understood. Freely available to everyone on the Internet and in stores, this new drug is none other than nitrous oxide, a harmless agent when used in appropriate circumstances. Inhaling nitrous oxide, also known as "laughing gas" because of its euphoric effect, is not without risk and can cause serious neurological damage and other health problems. In recent years, the number of intoxications has increased especially among French youth. In response to the gravity of the situation and the urgency to act, health professionals, police officers and politicians have accomplished a major breakthrough to avoid this practice from developing further by regulatory tightening of nitrous oxide marketing&nbsp;&nbsp; and by improving information to young people and professionals on the risks of inappropriate use of nitrous oxide.&nbsp; Although the results of these measures are not yet satisfactory, other recommendations can be considered to curb this new practice.</p> wassim legha Copyright (c) Difficulty interpreting cardiac blood test results : about a case of consumption of tramadol and hydroxyzine <p>Purpose</p> <p>we present a postmortem case of a patient who died in the context of consumption of tramadol and hydroxyzine. We described how to interpret postmortem concentrations and how this can contribute to the determination of the cause of death.</p> <p>Case description</p> <p>A 59-year-old male, died after surgery following an « anesthesia complication ». The blood concentration of tramadol, hydroxyzine and cetirizine were 1415 μg/L, 1424 μg/L and 6544 μg/L respectively.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>Blood concentrations of tramadol and hydroxyzine are consistent with the hypothesis of death, but assays were carried out on cardiac blood, subject to post-mortem redistribution phenomena possibly responsible for an overestimation of the blood concentrations measured.</p> Sara Abdennour Copyright (c) Analysing and Differentiating Original Documents from their Colored Copies Produced by Inkjet and Laser Printers <p>The increase in the application of printers for producing official as well as other documents has intensified their use in various types of crimes such as counterfeiting documents of legal importance. A detailed knowledge about the identifying characteristics of all conventional and modern printing methods is required in order to be capable of examining and differentiating the printouts of different printers. Hence, this study has been carried out to analyse the differences between characteristics of original documents and their scanned colored copies produced by inkjet printers and laser printers using a stereomicroscope.</p> <p>The results were satisfying. Sufficient peculiar characteristics were recorded easily, reliably and non-destructively with the aid of a stereomicroscope.</p> <p>Stereomicroscope proved to be an effective tool for analysing and comparing various characteristics of original documents with their colored copies in order to differentiate them.</p> Komal Saini, Gagandeep Kaur, Vinayak Gupta, Seema Sharda Copyright (c) Terrorist crime in Moroccan criminal legislation <p>Various Arab and international legislations in recent decades have been interested in enacting special criminal texts, according to which a group of crimes are adapted if they are associated with certain elements as terrorist acts that must be followed up with special texts different from the criminal texts established for ordinary crimes.</p> <p>This is because of the dangers these crimes pose to the interests of individuals and the state, and because of the threat they cause to the stability and security of societies, as well as to their serious harm to public order.</p> <p>Also, these crimes are always committed within the framework of an individual or collective project by using the most dangerous means that cause intimidation, intimidation or violence.</p> <p>There are many crimes that the Moroccan legislator considers terrorist acts if they are deliberately related to an individual or collective project aimed at seriously harming public order, through intimidation, intimidation or violence, in application of Article 218-1 of Law 03.03 related to combating terrorism.</p> <p>What is the specificity of the objective provisions of terrorist crimes at the level of staff and at the level of the punitive penalty decided for them?</p> <p>This is what we will answer in this academic scientific study according to the following two requirements:</p> <p>The first requirement: the specificity of the elements of terrorist crimes</p> <p>The second requirement: the specificity of the elements of the penalty for terrorist crimes</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Younes Nafid Copyright (c) Quick screening of hand sanitizers for adulterants and quantification of ethanol content using attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy <p>Hand sanitizer has become an essential commodity for personnel hygiene after the outbreak of Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by novel coronavirus called severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Due to the enormous use and demand of hand sanitizer, it is being produced in large measure by many industries, some of which do not adhere to the standard guidelines provided by the World Health Organization. Non-adherence to guidelines has led to loss of many lives and has caused many detrimental health issues. Therefore, there is a need to quickly and reliably identify adulterants in hand sanitizers and also quantify ethanol content to see whether the concentration matches with that of the labeled concentration in the bottle. Recommended concentrations are necessary to keep a check on the efficacy of hand sanitizers to kill germs and viruses. In the current study, ATR-FTIR spectroscopy has been utilized for the analysis of 24 different brands of hand sanitizers. Methanol was detected in few of the samples analyzed. PCA was utilized on the obtained ATR-FTIR data to investigate and recognize the patterns of hand sanitizers, and it further validated the presence of methanol in some samples. Finally, ethanol concentrations in hand sanitizers were determined by building a predictive model using different concentrations of standard ethanol. Three samples were found to have less than recommended ethanol concentration. The technique utilized in the present study has the ability to give results in quick time (within 5 minutes) and can be helpful for utilization in commercial regulations.&nbsp;</p> Mr., Miss, Miss, Rajinder Singh Copyright (c) أصول الجغرافيا الجنائية <p>This research summarizes the relationship between geography and crime, by collecting all the information distributed among the different sciences. Such as human geography, sociology, environmental criminology, etc.; To formulate it in one system, establishing the science of criminal geography in a systematic and accurate manner. Therefore, it is multidisciplinary research.</p> amal kordofany Copyright (c) A A brief review on recent advancements in various methods for differential forensic diagnosis of fly artifacts from bloodstains in crime scenes <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p>Insect artifacts produced by necrophagous adult flies over a variety of depositional surfaces are confounding to crime scene investigations. Assessment of bloodstains through morphological features combined with contextual and presumptive chemical analysis as traditional practices are often inconclusive. Absorbance of bloodstains and substantial wicking on fabrics due to underlying texture and repeated stitch loops in the fabric makes the diagnosis even more difficult from stain morphology. To overcome this, modern techniques like immunoassay, scanning electron microscopy and DNA-based identification methods have been considered as more effective confirmatory differential diagnosis of fly artifacts in crime scenes.&nbsp;&nbsp; In this work, a critical review on recent advances in the forensic diagnosis of fly artifacts through modern techniques has been presented.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> soumeek chowdhuri Copyright (c) Fake Reviews Detection using Multinomial Naïve Bayes with Grid Search and n-gram <p>Online reviews play an awfully necessary role in decision-making in e-commerce. Positive reviews of a target object will attract a lot of customers and increase sales; negative reviews of a target object may end up in lower demand and lower sales. Fake review detection has attracted sizable attention in recent years. Most review sites, however, still do not filter fake reviews in public. Yelp is an Associate in Nursing exception that over the past few years has filtered reviews. Yelp's algorithmic rule, however, could be a business secret. In this paper, the different algorithms on a yelp dataset has applied then compared the results. A proposed Grid Search cross-validation with Multinomial Naive Bayes Classifier that uses the best parameter gave the accuracy of almost 77 percent, which was the highest amongst all the other classifiers. The proposed model has used textblob to find polarity and sentiment for the review, and also find out the positive and negative sentiment bearing words in the review; finally n-gram model assigns probabilities to sentences and sequences of words. The proposed model works as a fake review detector where users can write or copy/paste any review and then it will tell whether the given review was fake or genuine. We have compared these accuracies as yelp has individual files for fake and real reviews. Our model also tells the probability score of review using n-gram features.</p> Anjani Kumar Verma Copyright (c) An Overview of Forensic Entomology <p class="s18"><span class="s14"><span class="bumpedFont15">Talking about modern scientific methods and their role in criminal evidence and extracting forensic evidence is constantly evolving with the development of ages and science and the emergence of modern technologies such as DNA </span></span><span class="s14"><span class="bumpedFont15">fingerprint, modern fingerprints such as eye, ear, brain, voice</span></span><span class="s14"><span class="bumpedFont15"> prints</span></span><span class="s14"><span class="bumpedFont15">, and others.</span></span></p> <p class="s18"><span class="s14"><span class="bumpedFont15">And if the m</span></span><span class="s14"><span class="bumpedFont15">a</span></span><span class="s14"><span class="bumpedFont15">terial </span></span><span class="s14"><span class="bumpedFont15">evidence </span></span><span class="s14"><span class="bumpedFont15">was in the past a tangible thing that everyone could recognize, then it has become in our contemporary world a very complex and multifaceted matter </span></span><span class="s14"><span class="bumpedFont15">that requires experience with a degree of specialization, which makes the study of modern methods of criminal proof and its legal nature very important, as the simplicity of the evidence in the past its limitation provide the judge </span></span><span class="s14"><span class="bumpedFont15">has his conviction, while the techniques for treating the evidence obtained through these modern </span></span><span class="s14"><span class="bumpedFont15">scientific </span></span><span class="s14"><span class="bumpedFont15">methods </span></span><span class="s14"><span class="bumpedFont15">made this conviction based on </span></span><span class="s14"><span class="bumpedFont15">matters and this is one of the legal jurisprudence problems that have an impact on the theory of the judge</span></span><span class="s14"><span class="bumpedFont15">’</span></span><span class="s14"><span class="bumpedFont15">s self</span></span><span class="s14"><span class="bumpedFont15">-</span></span><span class="s14"><span class="bumpedFont15">c</span></span><span class="s14"><span class="bumpedFont15">onsent.</span></span></p> <p class="s18"><span class="s14"><span class="bumpedFont15">Thus, the emergence of some modern sciences – </span></span><span class="s14"><span class="bumpedFont15">P</span></span><span class="s14"><span class="bumpedFont15">alynology</span></span><span class="s14"><span class="bumpedFont15"> and </span></span><span class="s14"><span class="bumpedFont15">F</span></span><span class="s14"><span class="bumpedFont15">orensic </span></span><span class="s14"><span class="bumpedFont15">E</span></span><span class="s14"><span class="bumpedFont15">ntomology – related to forensic medicine had an </span></span><span class="s14"><span class="bumpedFont15">effective role in the criminal proof and the discovery of the mystery of the crime.</span></span></p> <p class="s18">&nbsp;</p> Ahmed Battour Copyright (c) Impact of Covid-19 on Firearm related Deaths in Varanasi Region <p>The present study was conducted to determine any change in pattern of fatal firearm cases in Varanasi district, India which could be linked to Covid-19 pandemic. Impact of Covid-19 on psychological and sociological aspects have been explored by many studies done across the world however the impact of pandemic on homicides and crime rates still requires further research worldwide as well as in our region. A total of 126 cases from a span of four and a half year have been taken into consideration. These cases were brought to the mortuary of Department of Forensic Medicine,(….). When compared with the data of last 3 years i.e., from year 2017 to the year 2019 in the present study, the trend was compared with the data from year 2020 and 2021, a rise in cases of suicides was observed in 2020 with no substantial rise in homicides through firearm. Further studies and deeper insights are required in such studies as it will help the law enforcement agencies in getting a clearer picture of the rise in homicides through firearms and highlighting the issue of use of unlicensed firearms in our region. This will communicate the urgent need to inculcate new and stricter laws and to implement the amended ones to tackle the problem efficiently.</p> Srishti Rai, Dr. Manoj Kumar Pathak Copyright (c) Overview of bimetallic nano-materials used for visualization of latent fingerprints on various surfaces <p>This review paper focuses on the use of doped metallic nanomaterials in forensic science for latent fingerprint detection and the benefits they provide in terms of fingerprint image quality. The advantages and important results of studies conducted on latent fingerprint detection with various doped metallic nanomaterials are critically discussed. Some doped metallic fluorescent nanoparticles have succeeded in producing high-quality fingerprint images which lead to the extraction of all three levels of fingerprint features. Some of the metallic nanomaterials used for latent fingerprint detection did not produce high-quality fingerprint images failing extraction of all three levels of fingerprint features. To overcome this forensic problem more research is needed to improve the latent fingerprint detection abilities of doped metallic nanomaterials.</p> Devidas Bhagat, Vilas A. Chavan , Ajit K. Gangawane Copyright (c) Forensic differentiation of Amanita mushrooms using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy coupled with chemometrics <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p>In mushroom poisoning cases, genus <em>Amanita</em> is responsible for majority of fatalities. Most of such cases are due to the accidental consumption of inedible mushrooms, but there is a high probability of their use forhomicidal purposes. Mushroom species can be identified based on the morphological features, however, in the field of forensic science, available exhibits are recovered in trace amounts, which pose a serious challenge before the forensic experts to analyse the samples in a non-destructive manner. In current work, ATR FT-IR spectroscopy has been used for the non-destructive identification and differentiation of six species of genus <em>Amanita</em>.To distinguish the selected mushroom species, chemometric tools like PCA and PLS-DA were applied. All samples were not successfully classified using the PCA model, thereforethe PLS-DA model was applied to enhance the classification rate. PLS-DA model yielded a significant classification rate for the differentiation among the samples of different wild mushroom species.&nbsp; Furthermore, blind validation test was conducted and all unknown samples were classified accurately to their respective class. The obtained R-square value for PLS-DA model was 0.99 which is highly significant for the prediction accuracy.</p> <p>Keeping in view the forensic casework conditions, another part of the study included discrimination of mushroom samples which were given various heat treatments like frying, boiling, grilling and baking. This study establishes a non-destructive approach which could discriminate wild mushroom samples in the dried and cooked form that can be encountered as evidence.</p> Rajinder Singh Copyright (c) تأثير تراكيز مختارة من الهيروين على تحلل جيف الارانب وتعاقب الحشرات ذات الأهمية الجنائية، في مدينة الرياض، المملكة العربية السعودية. <p>This study aims at finding the effect of heroin presence in rabbit carcasses on their decomposition, and the succession of insects on them in the city of Riyadh, in the seasons of winter and summer. Samples were collected during the various stages of decomposition while recording data of the various environmental factors.</p> <p>Four stages of rabbit carcass decomposition were recorded in all experiments, where the various carcasses took periods of 13-14 days in the winter and 6-8 days in the summer to reach the dry stage. In both seasons, it was observed that the presence of heroin increases the length of decomposition period.</p> <p>Totals of 5,545 and 1,161 insects were collected during winter and summer respectively. In general, the number of flies in both seasons was significantly larger than beetles and ants. During the winter, 30 species of insects were collected from heroin-treated rabbits, while 26 species of insects were collected from untreated carcasses. In the summer, 19 species of insects were collected from heroin-treated rabbit carcasses while only 14 insect species were collected from heroin-free carcasses.</p> <p>In general, the results of the heroin experiment showed that the difference in seasons affects the number of insects attracted to the carcasses, while the concentrations used did not statistically affect the number of insects attracted to the carcasses in the two seasons</p> عبدالله القحطاني Copyright (c) Developing an Analytical Method for the Analysis of AMB-FUBINACA in Mice Brain using GC-MS/MS <p><strong>Background</strong></p> <p>AMB-Fubinaca is a synthetic cannabinoid and one of the New Psychoactive substances NPS that was banned in USA through an emergency rule after it was detected in a synthetic cannabis product called "Train Wreck 2" which had been related to adverse reactions and seizures in 2014. Since 2016 until 2018 the product was several times reported as main cause of death and mass causalities in New York and New Zealand. The methylated form of AMB-Fubinaca was detected and confirmed in emergency cases in the blood and urine samples. From the data we have, no reports described the distribution of the drug in the brain tissue from postmortem cases.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong></p> <p>To understand the distribution of the drug FUB-AMB and its metabolites in mice brain tissue, Swiss albino mice (n=18) were divided into three groups: control group (without administration of AMB-FUBINACA); group 2, treated orally with low dose of (5 mg/kg) of AMB-FUINACA; group 3, treated orally with high dose (50 mg/kg) of AMB-FUBINACA, respectively.</p> <p>AMB-FUBINACA reference substance and Internal Standards were used to study the calibration curve of the analytes and to determine the LoD and LoQ of the method. AMB-FUBINACA was extracted from the mice brain using ethyl acetate in liquid-liquid extraction method (LLE), &nbsp;followed by GC/CI-MS/MS-MRM</p> <p><strong>Results</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;The results demonstrated a highly efficient method in terms of extraction, detection, and quantification. The limit of detection (LOD) was 0.5 ng/g, and the limit of quantitation (LOQ) was 1 ng/g. The linearity of the analytical method was within the range of 1-1000 ng/mL, and the correlation coefficient (r²) was 0.99. No interference of the matrix was observed at the retention time of all mentioned ions of substances, intra-day precision was (%RSD; 1.28 to 7.51%) and the intra-day accuracy was (-10.75 to -0.423), the inter-day precision was (%RSD; 2.31 to 4.4%) and the inter-day accuracy was (-8 to -1.9%). The extraction recovery was 76%.</p> <p><strong>Recommendations:</strong></p> <p>The developed analytical method can be used in the forensic and clinical toxicology laboratories for the identification and determination of the drug (AMB-FUBINACA) in brain samples.</p> Malak Alghamdi, Abdulsallam Bakdash, Jihad Al-Qudsi, Sachil Kumar Copyright (c) ESTIMATION OF STATURE FROM VARIOUS BODY PARAMETERS IN MAHARASHTRIAN POPULATION <p>Stature is an important parameter for identification of deceased in cases where mutilated and dismembered body is found or where skeleton with missing parts makes body identification difficult. This study aims to derive regression equations for various body parameters with determining the best body parameters to estimate stature. Body parameters from upper and lower extremity i.e., stature, total arm length, upper arm length, ulnar length, wrist breadth, hand length, handbreadth, iliac to foot, iliac to the patella, lower leg length, leg length, foot height, foot breadth and foot length were considered and measured. Hip size was also measured which was not considered in previous studies. Measurements were taken from Maharashtrian population that included 150 females and 66 males. This study showed that upper as well as lower extremity had positive correlation with stature. However, lower extremity had higher correlation with stature as compared to upper extremity. Compared to other body parameters, iliac to foot had lowest SEE in males (SEE±3.49) and female (SEE±3.38) and highest correlation with stature in males (r<sup>2</sup>= 0.7) and females (r<sup>2</sup>=0.63).Thus, Iliac to foot was considered as the best parameter to estimate stature. On the other hand, Hip size had highest SEE in males (SEE ±6.99) and females (SEE ±5.46) and very less correlation in males (r<sup>2</sup>=0.00) and females (r<sup>2</sup>=0.04). Thus, hip size was considered as worst body parameter to estimate stature in both males and females. Also, regression equations derived in this study could be successfully and reliably used to estimate stature in Maharashtrian population.</p> Copyright (c) Force as Pressure Level measurements in DCS <p>Digitally Captured Signatures (DCS, eSignatrues or Biometric Signatures) process handwriting motion by registering four different types of information (i.e. 4 channels of biometric data) i.e. the spacial X &amp; Y coordinates, Pressure &amp; Time.</p> <p>From the point of view of forensic handwriting and document examination, it needs to be investigated and clarified whether these 4 channels capture &amp; represent the information in the same way, independent of software or hardware conditions, as this will probably be the situation the expert will encounter in real cases. Our research proves that this is not the case, especially for Pressure (or more accurately Force). In this presentation we introduce the latest findings and calibration procedures carried out in a joint Chartoularios / Staffordshire University research project, aiming at completely understanding the Pressure to Force relation of the Wacom STU 530 and 540 digitizers that are widely used in the European market, highlighting the compatibility &amp; comparability issues that have been discovered.</p> Nikolaos Kalantzis Copyright (c) الجريمة السربيانية وأشكال التدابير الأمنية التي تتخذها أجهزة وازرة الداخلية في المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية <p><sub>لقد اصبح من الجلي أنتشار مبدأ "سيادة الانترنت" والذي بات واضحا الان بعدما صار الانترنت يشكل جزءاً هاماً من ركائز سيادة الدول، حيث أن التكنولوجيا بأشكالها المتعددة احدثت تغيي ارت جذرية في بُنية دول العالم و سياساتها و مناهجها وأدواتها واساليبها المتعددة الاشكال. إلا ان طرق استحداث وابتكار اساليب جديدة لحماية استخدام اجهزة الكومبيوتر وحماية البيانات المتصلة بتلك الاجهزة وحماية المؤسسات المتعددة في الدولة ، لم يبرز الا تقدماً ضئيلاً في هذا المجال حتى الان. حيث ظهرت مجموعة من الهجمات المتنوعة من الب ارمج الضارة. مثل هجمات التصيد الاحتيالي والبريد العشوائي و التهديدات الإلكترونية التي تواجهها الشركات بشكل متكرر. وأصبح تهديد الجريمة الإلكترونية يتفاقم بشكل مستمر للشركات والمنظمات والمؤسسات المختلفة بحيث يجعل التحديات ديناميكية ومستمرة. ومن المهم أد ارك أن هناك ثلاثة ابعاد تقليدية للسيادة الوطنية لاي دولة والتي تتجسد في ) البر، والجو، والبحر(، لكن تطوارت التكنولوجيا الضخمة و التي انبثقت عنها الثورة الرقمية و أدت الى تطور شبكات الانترنت بشكل هائل ، والتي أصبح يشهدها عالم اليوم ، حيث لا يمكن تصور اي جزء في العالم من دون تلك الشبكات، فباتت"السيادة" التي يفرضها الفضاء الالكتروني بُعداً اربعاً لتلك الابعاد التقليدية للسيادة الوطنية.&nbsp;</sub></p> سميح المجالي Copyright (c) Simultaneous Analysis of Synthetic Cathinones in Urine Using GC-MS/MS <p>Synthetic cathinones, commonly referred to as “bath salts”, belong to a group “new psychoactive substances”.&nbsp; These are psychoactive drugs that mimic the effects of existing illegal drugs and they have been proven extremely difficult to be controlled because manufacturers continually change the “recipe” to evade newly placed drug laws.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The consumption of cathinones is a great risk since the oversodose was documented to have fatal effects.&nbsp; The objective of this study was to develop a GC-MS/MS method for simultaneous analysis of cathinone, methcathinone, mephedrone, methylone and butylone in human urine samples. Blank samples, spiked and authentic human urine samples were used in this study. Sample preparation was involved a one-step derivatization and extraction method, using ethyl chloroformate as the derivatization reagent, and ethyl acetate as the extraction solvent. Methamphetamine-D3, methylone-D3 and butylone-D3 were used as internal standards (ISs). Sample was analyzed by GC-MS/MS and chemical ionization (CI) mode. For quantitative analysis, GC-MS/MS was operated in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode.</p> <p>The calibration curves were linear within concentration range of 2.5-1000 ng/mL for all compounds except mephedrone was (5-1000 ng/mL) with correlation coefficient (0.99). The limit of quantitation (LOQ) was 2.5 ng/mL for all compounds except mephedrone which (5.0 ng/mL). &nbsp;Intra- and inter-assay precision (%RSD) were within (6.18-13.59) and (1.13-11.53), respectively, for all compounds. Intra- and inter-assay accuracy (%Bias) were between -12.89 and 11.5, -8.62 and 2.73, respectively, for all compounds. The values of precision and accuracy were within the acceptable limits recommended by FDA<strong>.</strong></p> Copyright (c) Airbag Fatality: case report from kingdom of Bahrain <p>Road traffic accidents and the occurrence of head injuries to passengers are inseparable. Airbags are designed to open in a head on collision when deceleration along the main vehicle axis exceeds a specified threshold. Defective airbags deployment has also been officially announced. These have bursted&nbsp;on deployment, with metal projectiles launching and hitting the passengers head and neck.</p> <p>This article discusses a case of fatal death from an airbag deployment that was presented to our department in the Kingdom of Bahrain and shows the integration of evidence that collectively helped in forming the final conclusion of cause and manner of death.</p> <p>With the introduction of airbags there has been marked reduction in morbidity and mortality of cases involved in road traffic accidents, but at the same time defective airbag deployment highlights the need to increase awareness of potential hazards associated with their use.</p> MOHAMMED ELDIN Copyright (c) An Insight into disguised handwriting: A review study <p>This review gives an overview of different features of disguised writing based on the individual characteristics of a writer. The study on disguised handwriting has been the most prominent facet in questioned document examination. Disguised handwriting has been and is still a predominant criminal activity encountered in forensic investigation. It is very critical for document examiners to elucidate the handwriting and interpret the source. Various studies and research have been conducted concerning class characteristics and individual characteristics in handwriting analysis. The main contribution of this work lies in encapsulating the methodology used, common features, the success rate of the population in disguising the handwriting, and also, the challenges faced by the document examiners in determining the authorship. The recent technological advancements discovered which can be used to perform the analysis of handwriting are also embraced.</p> Achsah Merrin John John, Ms. Ashwini Rao SV Copyright (c) Fractal Modeling of Iris Texture for iris biometrics <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p>The iris is a human bar code. Indeed, even if its color, as well as its shape and its general appearance are genetically determined, its texture is specific to each individual, even to each eye of the same individual and it is stable throughout life.</p> <p>The objective of this work is to define, from the iris texture, a digital signature that is both concise and effective for biometric purposes. This signature must necessarily arise from parameters specific to the iris. The quality of the signature depends on the analysis technique used and also on its adequacy with the real nature of the texture. Thus, a good choice of the technique for analyzing the iris, first requires recognition of the nature of its texture. A visual examination of the iris texture leads us to classify it in the category of irregular, stochastic micro-textures. A first reflection leads us towards methods based on a space-frequency analysis. These techniques have been used extensively for iris biometric systems and multiple approaches appear in the literature [1-4]. However, a deeper observation allows to discern a particular aspect, which manifests itself in the appearance of similar details, at different scales, arbitrarily small or large, defining a certain self-similarity within the texture of the iris, as well as some degree of irregularity. This particular aspect is often said to be fractal [6]. If by simple observation of the texture of the iris we can detect such texton characteristics, the estimation of its Hausdorff dimension [5, 6] agrees with its classification in the category of fractal textures. Indeed, an object is said to be fractal if its Hausdorff dimension is greater than its topological dimension. This has been experimentally verified by the texture of the iris in the present work. Indeed, a Hausdorff dimension of the order of 1.6 was estimated on the contours of the iris texture, which led us to declare it “fractal” and submit it to a fractal analysis to extract new parameters, more specific to the iris.</p> <p>This work describes the proposed approach for Fractal Modeling of Iris Texture (FMIT). It consists on a quantification of the variation of fractal dimensions calculated over 256 blocks of the iris texture. FMIT generates an iridian signature of only 255 bits. For the evaluation of FMIT, a base of 2711 irises taken from 274 individuals in the visible spectrum, was constructed as part of a federated research project “Multimodal Biometric Platform for the Fight against Terrorism” (PBMLT). An identification rate of 97.64% and an authentication rate of 100% were achieved while using FMIT approach in an iris biometric system. FMIT has also shown interesting performances when compared with two other state-of-the-art approaches and used for CASIA benchmark, within experiments conducted in this work.</p> ASFSFM Scientific Committee, Imène Khanfir Kallel, Faiza WALHA Copyright (c) Toxicological findings in death due to anti-mortem injuries: A case study <p>Forensic toxicological study provides precious insight into the potential contribution of poison to external-cause deaths. There is a scarcity of material that guides injury researchers on the ethics that need to be considered when examining the presence and contribution of poison to these deaths. Thin Layer Chromatography and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry analysis were proven as an effective method for addressing intoxication cases related to ante-mortem injuries. Herein, we report a case of 22 year old male died due to ante-mortem cerebral injuries with greenish grey colored semisolid material found in stomach. As the inquiry and autopsy are limited to identifying patterns and external examination, the accurate mechanisms and cause of death are not clearly known without the precise toxicological finding. In toxicological examination, traces of organophosphate pesticide mixture (Metrifonate, Dichlorvos and Ethion) were found in provided specimen samples including blood. It suggested the cause of death could be pesticide mixture poisoning. The present study emphasizes on the importance of critically analyze toxicological findings in relation to the cause and manner of death.</p> Rahul Sharma, Jitendra Kumar Copyright (c) Facial Recognition for Physiological and Biological Multimodal Biometric Identification Platform <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Facial biometrics are a relatively reliable solution for securing access of sensitive places as well as for the terrorists’ detection. Indeed, several works have been carried out in the field of intelligent recognition of individuals. Therefore, a system for recognizing the identities of suspects based on facial modality is used to recognize an intruder based on his facial characteristics of texture, shape, and color.</p> <p>In this project, we propose a new system of terrorists’ facial recognition as a part of a Biological Multimodal Biometric Identification Platform. For several years, digital cameras have specialized in identifying a face in real time. Currently, this technology is developed and adapted for video surveillance systems. There are now cameras on the video surveillance market that can recognize a face, identify, and follow the movements of the individual even in a crowded area.</p> <p>We validate the proposed system on the Face scores@PBMLT sub-corpus that covers the major number of contributors (n=500) in the PBMLT project dataset. Each individual contributor is represented by 24 images (7 facial expression variations, 3 dif- ferent lighting conditions, 11 views and 3 varied distances from the camera). The general objective of this project is to improve techniques for collecting and analyzing biometric data for the precise and rapid identification of individuals from their faces.</p> </div> </div> </div> Tarek M. Hamdani Copyright (c) Administrative control authorities in the time of Corona <p><strong>Summary of the research</strong></p> <p><strong> </strong></p> <p><strong> </strong></p> <p><strong><em> </em></strong></p> <p>In this research, we address several questions, which are:</p> <ul> <li>Is the Corona pandemic an emergency condition that falls within the scope of the provisions of emergency conditions? Or force majeure falls in the shadows of this conditioning.</li> <li>What is the difference between emergency circumstances and force majeure in terms of nature and impact?</li> <li>What are the precautionary measures taken by the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia as a model that all countries of the world have followed in the face of this pandemic?</li> </ul> <p>During the past twenty years, the dangers of many epidemics and diseases and many problems with legal, social, economic and political dimensions have been raised as well as with the Corona crisis in its connection with global health security and the resulting charters in the field of dealing with goods and services through the SARS epidemic in 2003 and the swine flu epidemic in 2009 or the virus Ebola in 2014, this time to appear, a virus that takes root in the entire world from the east.</p> <p> In light of this matter, we ask those previous questions: Is the Corona virus a force majeure or an emergency circumstance?</p> <p> In international conventions, epidemics and natural catastrophic events are referred to as a cause of force majeure, along with wars and public power in general a point must be kept clear, force majeure can be invoked - and thus the part may be considered a breach of the convention that clause is included only if the events invoked as force majeure force majeure has a significant impact on the ability to perform the contractual obligations of the party invoking it.</p> <p><em> </em></p> <p> However, it must be emphasized that any event that makes the performance of the agreement more difficult is not always seen as falling under the definition of force majeure.</p> عماد ملوخية Copyright (c) Prof New Optical Sensor Based on Au@MX2 Hybrid for The Detection at Low Traces <p>During the last decades, nano-sensing and quantifying have become a premonition worldwide. Indeed, nanomaterials bring new and fascinating features to many materials compared with their bulk counterparts. Thus, the development of several industrial gadgets is achieved such as solar cells, sensors, LEDs… Beyond graphene, several nanomaterials have been synthesized denoting metal oxides, graphene oxides, and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) materials. The later family is favored by the high carrier mobility, high surface-to-volume ratio, and bandgap tunability. Owing to these features, TMDCs materials possess a great potential for application in medicine, sensing, biology…&nbsp; Among these materials, molybdenum disulphide (MoS<sub>2</sub>) is extensively studied, and since that various TMDCs materials are synthesized and studied denoting tungsten disulphide (WS<sub>2</sub>), molybdenum diselenide (MoSe<sub>2</sub>), tungsten ditelluride (WTe<sub>2</sub>) …</p> <p>Herein, we have exfoliated MoS<sub>2</sub> and WS<sub>2</sub> NS with liquid-phase exfoliation (LPE) technique, and the exfoliated nanosheets number was determined based on Raman and UV-Vis data. Moreover, UV-Vis data was used to extract much information; concentration and mean length of MX<sub>2</sub> NS.&nbsp; Furthermore, we have used both MoS<sub>2</sub> and WS<sub>2</sub> to develop nanoplasmonic semiconductor sensors through the coat of MoS<sub>2</sub> and WS<sub>2</sub> nanosheets (NS) with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). This fact reveals the charge transfer between NPs and the semiconductor where the type of junction is defined thanks to the semiconductor theory. Since we aim at the sensing field, using AuNPs is the best choice owing to its stainless and inert. To detect at low traces, we used enhanced Raman spectroscopies (ERS) applied on the hybrid Au@MX<sub>2 </sub>(MX<sub>2</sub>=MoS<sub>2</sub>, WS<sub>2</sub>). These techniques are surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and photo-induced enhanced Raman spectroscopy (PIERS) where the prior tool has an extra step compared with the first one. This step is the pre-irradiation of the substrate with UV-C light leading to the enhancement of the conventional Raman signals. A reporter molecule known as 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (MBA) is used to achieve the sensing procedure. The overall enhancement factor was in the order of 10<sup>6</sup> for both substrates. Nevertheless, the vibrational modes were improved with a factor of 4 for SERS Au@MoS<sub>2</sub> and ~9 for PIERS Au@WS<sub>2</sub> optical platforms. Regarding the enhancement origin is still unknown until now, however, scientists have proposed two effects the first is electromagnetic (EM) and the second is charge transfer (CT).&nbsp; The Raman signals will be boosted in the ERS techniques and strongly enhanced when the electromagnetic field E is almost |E|<sup>4</sup> since AuNPs possess localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) and/or hot spots obtained after simple irradiation, The charge transfer effect was well observed in the case of PIERS Au@WS<sub>2</sub> resulted by extra electron where its density (ED =1.8%) was determined based on the pre-post UV-C irradiation spectrum. These findings prove that the Au@WS<sub>2</sub> sensor works well with PIERS in the detection of low traces.</p> Ramzi Maalej Copyright (c) Biometric authentication based on multi-modal biometrics fusion in degraded context <p>Acquisition-related problems are among those that significantly affect the performance of biometric authentication systems. Various types of distortion can affect the images of acquired modalities (such as face, fingerprint, iris). We quote the problems of luminosity, pose, occlusion, and resolution of the camera. Therefore, the recognition systems still remain challenging in uncontrolled environments. In this paper, we propose to fuse information from multiple modalities : the fingerprint, the face and the iris in a degraded context to overcome limitations of the unimodal biometric system. Numerous types of source data degrading factors are investigated: dry and oily fingerprint image, image noise and iris occlusion. Through our analysis of the realized testing on the PBMLT database and derived results, the proposed biometric fusion outperformed monomodal performances.</p> lamia Rzouga Haddada, Najoua Essoukri Ben Amara Copyright (c) Detection of mercury chloride in decomposing rabbit tissues and certain necrophagic dipteran species of forensic importance <p>A closer link has been developed between entomology and toxicology, giving rise to a new discipline called entomotoxicology, which is the study of the bioaccumulation of toxic substances in scavenging insects and other arthropods.</p> <p>In order to detect the presence of possible toxic substances, such as heavy metals in entomological samples and cadaveric tissues. We conducted a series of experiments by introducing a lethal dose of Mercury Chloride into three rabbits, which are exposed to the air after death to attract scavenging Diptera.</p> <p>The toxicological analysis using the technique of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS), carried out on several organs of treated rabbits (lung, liver, spleen, kidney, muscles…etc) as well as larvae of necrophagous flies (<em>Lucilia sericata</em> and <em>Chrysomya albiceps</em>).&nbsp; Showed the presence of significant amount of Mercury Chloride in entomological samples and in different cadaveric tissues.</p> Fouzi Boulkenafet Copyright (c) عربى <p>الجرائم الإلكترونية وجرائم وسائل التواصل الاجتماعى مجال تشريعى يحتاج الى ارساء سوابق قضائية بالرغم من الطبيعة الفنية التى يتصف بها المجال الا انه لابد من وضع اسس يتم العمل من خلالها بمزيج فنى وقانونى حسب ما تقتضيه الضرورة</p> معمر على ابراهيم محمد البحيرى Copyright (c) Unusual Disposal of a Cadaver with Complete Adipocere Formation <p><strong><u>Abstract: </u></strong></p> <p>Adipocere , also known as&nbsp; mortuary wax&nbsp; ,&nbsp; ice man ,&nbsp; is&nbsp; an inodorous , whitish,&nbsp;&nbsp; soapy&nbsp; like crumby&nbsp;&nbsp; postmortem&nbsp; product that replace putrefactive process . Adiopocere is originates from human or animal fat and consists of a mixture of fatty acids. The time needed for its formation is variable depending on environmental conditions. Burial in moist clay soiled grave or submerging in water favors its formation.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Once formed, it can lasts for decades, acting as a preservative for features and injuries, thereby aiding in the identification process and evidence preservation.&nbsp; Here we present a case of complete adipocere formation in an elderly man killed and thrown in a sewage plant three months earlier.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> hanaa mohamed elzahed Copyright (c) القصد الجنائى فى الجرائم الغلكترونية <p>لما كانت تصرفات الجانى والادوات التى يستخدمها فى تنفيذ الفعل المجرم تبيان لقصده الجنائى كان لابد من وضع معايير فى الجرائم الالكترونية توضح القصد الجنائى وتمتزج هذه المعايير قانوناً وفنياً وفق اسس علمية دقيقة</p> Copyright (c) السودان - الخرطوم <p>لقداصبح اثر الجريمة الإلكترونية ممتداً الى العديد من الدول فى وقت وجيز مما يستدعى إيجاد تشريعات أو التحفيز للوصُول إلي تشريعات تُناسب هذه الجرائم للحد من خُطورتها وأصبح الأمراً مُلحاً الان فهى مختلفُه من حيثُ مكانها ، وأسلوب إرتكابها عن الجرائم التقليديِّة ما أدى إلي ظُهور العديد من المُشكلات أبرزها عجز قوانين الإثبات الحالية ، التي وُضعتْ نُصوصها في ظُروف تختلف عن الظروف الماثلة الآن فعجزت هذه الوسائل عن مُواجهة الأنواع الجديدة من هذه الجرائم التي&nbsp; إنعكس تأثيرها علي القوانين الإجرائيِّة خاصة فيمّا يتعلقُ بصُعوبة إثبات هذا النوع الجديد من الجرائم التي قد تُرتكب عن بُعد , ثم عدم مُواكبة أهل القانون لها وتكييفها أحياناً&nbsp; مثل ما يحدُث في الجرائم التقليديِّة&nbsp; التى يمكن الإعتماد فيها على&nbsp; السوابق القضائيِّة التي أرستها المحاكم وثبتتْ بالممارسات ، عكس التى تقع&nbsp; في الجرائم ألمعلوماتيِّة ، وذلك لطبيعتها الفنيِّة المُعقدة.</p> معمر على ابراهيم محمد البحيرى Copyright (c) دور نظم الإحصائية في تصميم سياسات العدالة الجنائية القائمة على الأدلة في الدول العربية <p><u>الملخص:</u></p> <p>لقد أصبحت الجريمة بكل أنواعها و أنماطها تتزايد من يوم لأخر في الدول العربية، و تهدد استقرار أفردها ومجتمعاتها. و قد أثرت حتى على تنمية اقتصادياتها. ان هذا الوضع يتطلب إيجاد مخططات تعزز الوقاية والأمن سواء على المستوى المحلي أو الإقليمي. و لا يتجلى هذا إلا من خلال وضع نظم إحصائية في الدول العربية&nbsp; توفر الأدلة لرصد مستويات</p> <p>&nbsp;واتجاهات جميع أنماط الجريمة. كما يجب أن تكون هناك مصالح يتعدى عملها العمل الإداري من خلال عمل إحصائي أقوى و شامل يرمي إلي&nbsp; تعزيز جودة البيانات.</p> <p>لقد اكتسب الإحصاء الجنائي أهمية كبيرة و مكانة متزايدة بين سائر ميادين الإحصاء الأخرى ، حيث تؤكد الإحصاءات الجنائية في كثير من دول العالم اتساع نطاق الإجرام وتعدد صوره وألواعه، مما يضع المجتمعات أمام مشكلة عويصة لابد من التصدي لها ومحاربتها بمختلف الأدوات و الوسائل و الطرق.</p> <p>وللإحصاء الجنائي أهمية قصوى في محاربة هذه المشكلة و دلك عن طريق تسليط لأضواء على الظاهرة الإجرامية ، والوصول إلى حجمها وأبعادها ،والعوامل المؤثرة بها ، وعلاقة ذلك بالزمان والمكان ، وبالظروف التنموية للمجتمع.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> زواوي لعوج Copyright (c)