Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM <p style="text-align: justify;">The Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences &amp; Forensic Medicine (AJFSFM) is an open access (CC BY-NC), peer-reviewed, and free of charge journal dedicated to the development and application of forensic science and forensic medical knowledge and research for the purpose of law and justice across the globe. The AJFSFM is an official publication (ISSN 1658-6786) of the Arab Society for Forensic Sciences and Forensic Medicine (ASFSFM) and is published biannually by Naif Arab University for Security Sciences (NAUSS), Riyadh – Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.</p> en-US <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;You must read and accept the copyright terms and conditions(<a href="https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/Copyrights" target="_blank" rel="noopener">click here for&nbsp;copyright terms</a>).</p> ajfsfm@nauss.edu.sa Journals.support@nauss.edu.sa Tue, 28 Jul 2020 11:31:54 +0300 OJS 3.1.2.1 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Vitreous Humor Biochemical Indicators of Acute CO Intoxication Associated Deaths: A Review of the Literature. https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1181 <p>Carbon monoxide (CO) intoxication is the inhalation of concentration of CO that is above the tolerant competence of the body. The quantity of CO inhaled determined the extent of damage inflicted on the body system which could lead to immediate morbidity or mortality. The euphoric and rapidity of the mechanism of action attributed to CO ranked it as deleterious gas that could cause irreparable or reparable damage depending on the concentration, health and immunological capacity of the body. The rapidity is now employed by criminals in perpetrating homicide and disguising it as suicidal or suicidal.&nbsp; The discovery of the body resulting from such an incidence and the postmortem interval has made blood very inefficient in determining the presence of CO or other ancillary damage. This called for the use of vitreous humor that can stand putrefaction and autolysis for a longer period. The dilemma in discriminating death resulting truly from CO intoxication from that of disguised is the quest of this study.&nbsp; This review elaborately takes a critical look at literatures relating to the subject of discourse with the view of drawing silent points that could be of critical importance in forensic science. A thorough review of the picture of vitreous chemistry resulting from acute CO intoxication was almost exhaustively analyzed based on the very perspectives found in literatures and other documents of importance.</p> ENI-YIMINI SOLOMON AGORO Copyright (c) 2020 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1181 Sun, 06 Sep 2020 12:25:12 +0300 Application of Adobe® Photoshop® CC 2018 for identifying the source of color laser printouts of HP® brand https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/741 <p>In today’s digital world, printer forensics is one of the most important disciplines to save the authenticity of printed documents and tracking criminals. Digital steganography is an advanced approach to secure color laser printing processes but not achieved for monochrome laser printers. Therefore, the identity of the machine utilizes to print color questioned document provide a valuable route for decreasing forgery crimes in digital forensic labs and law enforcement. So, we introduced a new forensic method that unveiling the steganography -hidden information- embedded in color laser printouts via an adopted preset in Adobe® Photoshop® CC 2018. This forensic tool applied as a nondestructive and indirect tool for image processing. In the present work, printing, scanning, extraction, and measurements for the embedded tracking dots of candidate color laser printouts have been conducted. Thirty-five HP® color laser printers have been selected with the different and same models and with a different serial number to print a hundred color laser printouts. The defined coded dots matrix patterns that characterized the color laser machines of the HP® brand could fruitfully determine. Therefore, this procedure could successfully be applied to distinguish between various color laser printouts printed by HP® printers with a variant serial number in digital forensic labs with a conclusive accuracy ratio attained to one -hundred percent.</p> Ahmad Saed Salim Copyright (c) 2020 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine (AJFSFM) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/741 Sun, 06 Sep 2020 12:15:56 +0300 Role of CT in Laryngotracheal Trauma in western Australian Population : A Case Series https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/414 <span>Laryngotracheal injuries are uncommon but often life threatening. Forensically, the assessment of survived cases is usually based on the external findings and several subjective elements such as reports from the involved persons and witnesses. Therefore, the need for more objective methods is crucial for forensic experts. Clinical computed tomography (CT) is sufficiently advanced to provide detailed descriptions of the internal structures. This study aims to evaluate the use of CT in survived and non survived cases of laryngotracheal trauma. A total of five patients were included in this study (4 survived cases and one deceased). Information and data were collected retrospectively from medical records, radiological images were analyzed. The study involved three cases with injuries which resulted from blunt trauma caused by an alleged boating accident and sporting accidents; as well as two cases with injuries as a result of medical malpractice. During history taking type of injury may help in early diagnosis of diagnosis and fast provision of treatment to patient. Blunt injury in stable cases may require help of CT as compared to acute injuries so as to treat them.</span> Mansour A Alghamdi Copyright (c) 2020 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine (AJFSFM) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/414 Wed, 02 Sep 2020 11:07:36 +0300 Stature reconstruction using shoe print dimensions of adult Nigerian medical students in the University of Lagos. https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/421 <p><strong>ABSTRACT</strong></p><p>Analysis of shoe prints can reveal very important clues which can be used as forensic evidence in crime scene investigations. Apart from giving idea about the bare foot morphology and individualistic characteristics, the shoe prints are also indicative of a person’s height. The present study aimed to derive regression equations for stature estimation using shoe print dimensions of adult Nigerian medical students in the university of Lagos. The study sample comprised 230 subjects (100 males and 130 females) of Nigerian parentage, aged 18 – 36 years who satisfied the inclusion criteria and fully consented to participate in the study. Ethical clearance was sought and gotten, after which stature and 480 bi-lateral shoe prints were obtained from the participants using a stadiometer and ink pads respectively. Data analysis was performed using SPSS version 20. Sexual dimorphism in stature and shoe print dimensions were found to be highly significant (p&lt;0.05), with the males having greater values than the females. Bi-lateral differences were observed to be statistically significant in the females and the pooled sample. The right shoe print length (RSPL) exhibited the highest correlation with stature in the males, females and the pooled sample with values of 0.483, 0.607 and 0.772 respectively. The shoe print breadths in the males, females and the pooled sample were significantly correlated with stature, except the left shoe print breadth (LSPB) in the females, with a correlation coefficient value of (r = 0.148). This study has demonstrated that shoe print dimensions are significantly correlated with stature, with the shoe print length showing more reliability in stature prediction than the shoe print breadth.</p><p> </p> Emeka Ambrose Okubike, Michael Ebe Nandi, Euphemia Cyprain Iheaza, Obun Cletus Obun Copyright (c) 2020 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine (AJFSFM) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/421 Wed, 02 Sep 2020 11:06:29 +0300 Lip Prints: A Statistical Study of Morphological Patterns to Determine Sex Differences among Brahmins and Yadavs of Bundelkhand Region of Uttar Pradesh https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/412 <p>Trace evidences such as fingerprints, lip prints, foot prints etc. help in the positive identification of an individual for the purpose of Forensic Investigation. Lip prints are considered unique to an individual and analogous to fingerprints. A lip print found at the scene of a crime can be a basis for conclusions as to the character of the event, the number of people involved, sexes, cosmetics used, habits, occupational traits and the pathological changes of lips themselves. The present study deals with the differentiation of lip print prints of males and females and also to study the distribution of lip print patterns in various Hindu casts and communities of Bundelkhand region of Uttar Pradesh. A total of 400 samples of lip prints were collected from males and females of age group 18-24 years, belonging to Brahmins and Yadavs from Bundelkhand region of Uttar Pradesh. The results of the study show that the most prevalent is Type I lip patterns followed by Type II, III, IV, I' and V in Brahmins whereas, Type III patterns is most predominant in Yadavs, followed by Type IV, I, II, V and I'. Lip patterns can be used for community differentiation, sex determination and also in personal identification that can contribute extensively to criminal investigation.</p> saba rashid Copyright (c) 2020 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine (AJFSFM) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/412 Wed, 02 Sep 2020 11:03:45 +0300 A Study of Footprint Individual Characteristics in a Sample of Adult Egyptians and Malaysians https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1149 <p>Identification&nbsp;of sex and ethnicity is one of the main tasks in building biological profile of individuals. Keen examination of footprints that may be found in crime scene can give valuable clues in forensic identification. The current work aimed to study the footprint individual characteristics and its relation to sex and population difference.</p> <p>The study was conducted on 200 adult volunteers. They were divided into two equal groups: Malaysians and Egyptians. The footprints were collected and foot was classified into four types on the basis of the relative morphological lengths of the toes. Toes inter-distance, phalangeal marks, humps, Chippaux-Smirak index (CSI) and footprint patterns were examined. The frequency of these characteristics was analyzed statistically using regression analysis.</p> <p>Among the studied individual features, it was found that t3-t4 inter-distance, phalangeal marks number, humps count and CSI differed between both sexes. Males tended to have lower t3-t4 inter-distance and higher CSI. Among Egyptians, being a male was associated with a 14% increase in number of humps. Among Malaysian, males tended to have significantly fewer phalangeal marks compared to females.</p> <p>As regards ethnicity<strong>, </strong>all footprints characteristics differed between Egyptians and Malaysians except CSI. Malaysians tended to have intermediate or fibularis foot types and wider toes inter-distances compared to Egyptians. Among females, Malaysians had significantly more humps and phalangeal marks compared to Egyptians. By contrast, among males, Malaysians tended to show relatively fewer humps than Egyptians and insignificantly different number of phalangeal marks. Whorl pattern was significantly higher among Egyptians than Malaysians.</p> maram atef mostafa Copyright (c) 2020 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1149 Wed, 02 Sep 2020 10:49:14 +0300 DETERMINATION OF SEX FROM FOOTPRINT DIMENSIONS IN CONTEMPORARY INDIAN BENGALI POPULATION: A PILOT STUDY https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/406 <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p><p><strong>Background</strong>: Footprint dimensions are vital evidences obtained from scene of crime. Often the forensic scientists use this information to help identify the offender using the attributes of the person. Footprints have also been used to build the biological profile of an unknown individual for identification. The measurements are specific for race and sex. The objectives of the present study are to examine the sexual dimorphism of foot print dimensions in adults of Indian Bengali sample and determine the sex from those measurements.</p><p><strong>Methods</strong>: The study was done on 100adult volunteers of ethnic Bengali origin of West Bengal. Footprints were taken on glossy paper with blue stamp pad ink, and then measurements were taken to nearest mm. Results: Discriminant function analysis was conducted using several linear measurements. Discriminant function was obtained.</p><p> <strong>Conclusion</strong>: This study provides useful baseline morphometric data of footprints of Indian Bengali population which when applied for sex determination returned 82.0 % correct classification.</p><p> KEY WORDS: forensic anthropology, sex, footprint, Indian Bengali, Discriminant Function Analysisa</p> PARTHA PRATIM MUKHOPADHYAY, Shankar Prasad Das, soumeek Chowdhuri Copyright (c) 2020 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine (AJFSFM) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/406 Wed, 02 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0300 Fatal Accidents of Children Falling Into Abandoned Bore Wells: An 11 year review of data and literature. https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1185 <p>The escalating children fatalities due to falling into bore-well&nbsp;has been in news in recent years. &nbsp;Bore-well which is digging structure, is&nbsp;created by digging, driving, boring, or drilling the ground to access groundwater from underground aquifers.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;When these borewell doesn’t fetch enough water they are abandoned without taking proper measures to seal it.</p> <p>&nbsp;The children’s might get accidentally stuck and trapped in the tubing or the hole of the borewell through which they are unable to extricate themselves. Due to this if immediate rescue is not done chances of survival of the little angels get diminished.</p> <p>Cases of children falling in borewell were studied from year 2006 to 2016. Data was reviewed from&nbsp;available literature, national crime record bureau of India, &nbsp;the news published in press media either as hard print, e- news, television etc.</p> <p>&nbsp;A total of 43 incidents of victims fallen in borewell were studied between period of 2006 to 2016. Most of these cases were of children's&nbsp;below 6 years with male preponderance. &nbsp;Most of the cases died due to asphyxiation due to wedging of the body in the narrow space of the borewell. In few cases (rather 2 cases) there was water in the borewell which may have drowned the victims.</p> <p>Fatalities of children falling in abandoned borewell had been rising. Such fatalities needs urgent attention in form of understanding of risk, prevention, rescue and other legal sanctions to prevent further such incidents in the coming years</p> Nilesh Keshav Tumram Copyright (c) 2020 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1185 Tue, 01 Sep 2020 10:16:42 +0300 ATR FT-IR Spectroscopy: A novel and non-destructive approach for the detection of blood on a single fiber https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1186 <table class="data" width="100%"> <tbody> <tr valign="top"> <td class="value"> <p>Blood is often encountered on different types of substrates in criminal investigations. Among such substrates, blood stained fabrics are one of the most commonly encountered evidence.&nbsp; Analysis of bloodstains on fabrics is restricted due to interference of fabric dyes, color of fabric which hampers visual identification, and limited sample quantity. Over the years, a plethora of research has been conducted to analyze recovered blood traces, however, the methods employed are limited by factors such as sample destructivity, chronophagus nature, and vulnerability to false positive results. To circumvent the aforementioned limitations, use of ATR FT-IR spectroscopy has surged as a non-destructive and reliable tool for the detection of traces of blood and other body fluids on fibers.&nbsp; In the present study, an attempt has been made to detect traces of blood in fibers of different types and colors using ATR FT-IR spectroscopy. The obtained results unequivocally concluded that by using ATR FT-IR spectroscopy blood can be successfully detected even on a single fiber through characteristic peaks positioned at 1650 cm<sup>-1</sup>&nbsp;and 1543 cm<sup>-1</sup>&nbsp;corresponding to amide I and amide II.&nbsp; On the basis of the IR marked protein region (1700-1500 cm<sup>-1</sup>) bloodstains could easily be discriminated from the blank fibers (except human hair, which overlapped with the peaks of bloodstained fibers) using chemometric tool that is PCA.&nbsp; Although, further investigations need to be conducted, this proof-of-concept study establishes the potential use of ATR FT-IR spectroscopy for the non-destructive, rapid, eco-friendly.</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Rajinder Singh Copyright (c) 2020 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1186 Tue, 01 Sep 2020 10:03:51 +0300 Strox (Novel Synthetic Cannabinoids) in Egypt: Medical and Legal Challenges https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1214 <p>&nbsp;Strox is a popular synthetic cannabis in Egypt that consists of smokable herbal products laced with unidentified synthetic cannabinoids [Δ 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) analogs]. Acute Strox intoxication manifested by acute toxic psychosis and severe cases could develop cardiovascular instability and fatal coma. Strox-related toxicity could be attributed to THC analogs and anticholinergic agents along with presence of additives such as ketamine. Limited knowledge considering exact Strox ingredients makes its identification in biological samples using standard toxicology impossible. In 2018 Egyptian law incriminated usage of five THC analogs that is rapidly followed by alteration of Strox constituents by its creators using non prohibited cannabinoids to escape legal prohibition.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;Therefore, comprehensive studies are needed to identify Strox constituents with subsequent successful detection.&nbsp; Moreover, the amendment of the law is essential to include all substances that have cannabis-like actions in the schedules of prohibited substance.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Zahraa Khalifa Sobh Copyright (c) 2020 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1214 Tue, 01 Sep 2020 10:00:51 +0300 A study of bilateral asymmetry of upper extremity and its effects on stature reconstruction amongst Nigerians. https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/404 <p>The relevance of stature prediction from body segments to a forensic scientist cannot be over emphasized. But the presence of bilateral asymmetry between these limbs still pose a lot of challenges in ascertaining accurate value of estimates. The application of a regression equation derived from right side in left side may cause more harm than good in medico-legal investigations. The aim of this study is to predict stature from limb lengths and to see the effect of bilateral asymmetry on stature reconstruction.<strong></strong> A total of 230 healthy Nigerians (100 males and 130 females), aged between 18 to 36 years were recruited for the measurement. Stature, left and right limb lengths were measured in centimeters in tandem with the standard anthropometric procedure. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 20 Chicago Inc. Results of this study showed sexual dimorphism and bilateral asymmetry between left and right limb lengths in both sexes at significance level of P&lt;0.01. The present outcome maybe found useful by Forensic anthropologist and anatomist in narrowing down human individuality using the regression models. Therefore, there is need for right appropriation of an equation to the correct side of the body otherwise it may lead to erroneous results.</p> Michael Ebe Nandi, Olaleye A Olabiyi, Emeka Ambrose Okubike, Euphemia Cyprian Iheaza Copyright (c) 2020 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine (AJFSFM) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/404 Tue, 18 Aug 2020 20:46:30 +0300 Lip Prints: A Statistical Study of Morphological Patterns to Determine Sex Differences among Brahmins and Yadavs of Bundelkhand Region of Uttar Pradesh https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/413 <p>Trace evidences such as fingerprints, lip prints, foot prints etc. help in the positive identification of an individual for the purpose of Forensic Investigation. Lip prints are considered unique to an individual and analogous to fingerprints. A lip print found at the scene of a crime can be a basis for conclusions as to the character of the event, the number of people involved, sexes, cosmetics used, habits, occupational traits and the pathological changes of lips themselves. The present study deals with the differentiation of lip print prints of males and females and also to study the distribution of lip print patterns in various Hindu casts and communities of Bundelkhand region of Uttar Pradesh. A total of 400 samples of lip prints were collected from males and females of age group 18-24 years, belonging to Brahmins and Yadavs from Bundelkhand region of Uttar Pradesh. The results of the study show that the most prevalent is Type I lip patterns followed by Type II, III, IV, I' and V in Brahmins whereas, Type III patterns is most predominant in Yadavs, followed by Type IV, I, II, V and I'. Lip patterns can be used for community differentiation, sex determination and also in personal identification that can contribute extensively to criminal investigation.</p> Saba Rashid Copyright (c) 2020 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine (AJFSFM) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/413 Tue, 18 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0300 Reading in the book “Scientific Documentation: A Guide to Scientific Publishing https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1277 <p>This research sheds light on the book "The Scientific<br>Publication Guide" prepared by the American Psychological<br>Association in the English language, and translated into<br>Arabic by Professor Dr. Dhiyab Al-Badayneh.<br>The book dealt with all the criteria, requirements and<br>principles of publishing followed in the association's<br>journals. The researcher pointed out that despite what was<br>written about the principles of scientific research and its<br>requirements in the Arabic language; the Arab Library still<br>needs specialized evidence dealing with the standards,<br>requirements and publishing principles in a number of<br>scientific disciplines to put an end in the differences in views<br>followed in the conditions for publication, its origins, and<br>requirements in many Arab publishers.</p> Mahmoud M. S. Saed Copyright (c) https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1277 Mon, 10 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0300 Issue Information https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1243 <table width="941"> <tbody> <tr> <td width="941">Issue Information</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Jan-20 June-20 Copyright (c) https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1243 Mon, 15 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0300 Forensic Differentiation of Black Shoe Polish Stains using Attenuated Total Reflection- Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Chemometrics https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1246 <p align="justify"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Adobe, serif;"><span style="font-family: Times, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">Shoe polish smears or stains are encountered as evidentiary material on a variety of substrates, particularly in cases related to sexual and physical assault, murder, theft, and robbery. This trace evidence can be used as proof of contact to narrow down the search in a criminal investigation. The identification and differentiation of samples with similar composition and the same hue can be a difficult task for the investigator. </span></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-family: Times, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">In the present work, the scope of Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy for discriminating shoe polish samples of 15 different brands is investigated in combination with chemometric tools that is principal component analysis. The discriminating power of visual analysis is 99.04 %, while in principal component analysis it is 98.09 %, which is highly significant. The blind test is carried out with unknown samples to the analyst, to predict their respective sample source. Intra-brand variation, homogeneity and the effect of different substrates on sample analysis are also studied. The reported method provides considerable results for the identification and differentiation of shoe polish samples of different brands. The stains on substrates could be identified and linked to their parent source as well.</span></span></p> Sweety Sharma, Spriha Sharma, Rajinder Singh Copyright (c) https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1246 Mon, 15 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0300 Study of Fatal Firearm Cases in Allahabad Region, India https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1247 <table width="697" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="7"><colgroup><col width="681"> </colgroup> <tbody> <tr> <td valign="top" width="681"> <p align="justify"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Adobe, serif;"><span style="font-family: Times, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><strong>Abstract</strong></span></span></span></span></p> <p align="justify"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Adobe, serif;"><span style="font-family: Times, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">This study was done to assess the pattern of firearm injuries in Allahabad amongst medicolegal autopsies in the mortuary of Swaroop Rani Nehru Hospital, MotiLal Nehru Medical College, India. It was a descriptive study including fatal cases of firearm injury which underwent autopsy from 1st of January 2015 to 30th July 2016.</span></span></span></span></p> <p align="justify"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Adobe, serif;"><span style="font-family: Times, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">The demographic information regarding the victims was obtained from the inquest report, person accompanying the victim, their friends and relatives. Autopsy reports were also used to gather additional information. Parameters studied included age and sex of the victim, site of firearm injury and manner of death. </span></span></span></span></p> <p align="justify"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Adobe, serif;"><span style="font-family: Times, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">In our study, out of 4,445 autopsies, 63 were cases of firearm injury. From these cases, 58 were homicidal, 3 were suicidal, and 1 was accidental. The results show that the age group most commonly affected was 31-40 years (26.98%). Male to female ratio was 6.9:1. The most common targeted part of the body was the chest (61.0%).</span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Archana Kaul, Rahat Faraz, Rai R. Kumar, K. Sonkar V. Kumar Copyright (c) https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1247 Mon, 15 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0300 Fatal Accidents of Children Falling into Abandoned Borewells: An 11-Year Review of Data and Literature https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1248 <table width="697" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="7"><colgroup><col width="681"> </colgroup> <tbody> <tr> <td valign="top" width="681"> <p align="justify"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Adobe, serif;"><span style="font-family: Times, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><strong>Abstract</strong></span></span></span></span></p> <p align="justify"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Adobe, serif;"><span style="font-family: Times, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">The escalation of child fatalities due to falling into borewell has been in news in recent years. A Borewell which is a digging structure, is created by digging, driving, boring, or drilling the ground to access groundwater from underground aquifers. When these borewells don’t fetch enough water they are abandoned without taking proper measures to seal them. Children might get accidentally stuck and trapped in the tubing or the hole of the borewell through which they are unable to extricate themselves. Due to this, if immediate rescue is not done, chances of survival of the little victims get diminished. </span></span></span></span></p> <p align="justify"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Adobe, serif;"><span style="font-family: Times, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">Cases of children falling in borewells were studied from year 2006 to 2016. Data were reviewed from available literature, national crime record bureau of India, the news published in press media either as hard print, e- news, television etc. A total of 43 incidents of victims who had fallen in borewells were studied. Most of these cases were of children below 6-years with male preponderance. In most of the cases, victims died due to asphyxiation due to wedging of the body in the narrow space of the borewell. In few cases (rather 2 cases) there was water in the borewell which may have drowned the victims. </span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Nilesh K. Tumram Copyright (c) https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1248 Mon, 15 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0300 ATR FT-IR Spectroscopy: A Novel and Non-Destructive Approach for the Detection of Blood on a Single Fiber https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1249 <table width="697" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="7"><colgroup><col width="681"> </colgroup> <tbody> <tr> <td valign="top" width="681"> <p align="justify"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Adobe, serif;"><span style="font-family: Times, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><strong>Abstract</strong></span></span></span></span></p> <p align="justify"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Adobe, serif;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">Blood is often encountered on different types of substrates in criminal investigations. Among such substrates, blood stained fabrics are one of the most commonly encountered evidence. Analysis of bloodstains on fabrics is restricted due to interference of fabric dyes, color of fabric which hampers visual identification, and limited sample quantity. Over the years, a plethora of research has been conducted to analyze recovered blood traces, however, the methods employed are limited by factors such as sample destructibility, chronophagus processing, and vulnerability to false positive results. To circumvent the aforementioned limitations, use of ATR FT-IR spectroscopy has surged as a non-destructive and reliable tool for the detection of traces of blood and other body fluids on fibers. In the present study, an attempt has been made to detect traces of blood in fibers of different types and colors using ATR FT-IR spectroscopy. The obtained results unequivocally concluded that by using ATR FT-IR spectroscopy blood can be successfully detected even on a single fiber through characteristic peaks positioned at 1650 cm</span></span><sup><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">-1</span></span></sup><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"> and 1543 cm</span></span><sup><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">-1</span></span></sup><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"> corresponding to amide I and amide II. On the basis of the IR marked protein region (1700-1500 cm</span></span><sup><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">-1</span></span></sup><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">) bloodstains could easily be discriminated from the blank fibers (except human hair, which overlapped with the peaks of bloodstained fibers) by using PCA chemometric tool. Although, further investigations are needed to be conducted, this proof-of-concept study establishes the potential use of ATR FT-IR spectroscopy for the non-destructive, rapid, eco-friendly.</span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Sweety Sharma, Jaskirandeep K. Jossan, Rajinder Singh Copyright (c) https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1249 Mon, 15 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0300 A Study of morphological features of footprints in Egyptian and Malaysian population https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1250 <p align="justify"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Adobe, serif;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">Determination of sex and ethnicity is one of the main tasks in building the biological profile of individuals. Keen examination of footprints that may be found at the crime scene can give valuable clues in forensic identification. The current work aimed to study the footprint morphological features and their relation to sex and population difference. </span></span></span></span></p> <p align="justify"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Adobe, serif;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">The study was conducted on 200 adult volunteers. They were divided into two equal racial groups: Malaysians and Egyptians. The collected footprints were classified into four types based on relative morphological toes lengths. Toes inter-distance, phalangeal marks position and number, humps count and Chippaux-Smirak index (CSI) were examined. The frequency of these characteristics was analyzed statistically using regression analysis.</span></span></span></span></p> <p align="justify"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Adobe, serif;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">Among the studied morphological features, it was found that t3-t4 inter-distance, phalangeal marks number, humps count and CSI differed significantly between males and females. </span></span></span></span></p> <p align="justify"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Adobe, serif;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">As regards ethnicity, all footprints characteristics differed significantly between Egyptians and Malaysians except CSI. </span></span></span></span></p> Maram Atef, Somaya Madkour, Asmaa S. El-Banna, Ghada Abu-Sheasha, Heba Abdelsamea Copyright (c) https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1250 Mon, 15 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0300 Strox (Novel Synthetic Cannabinoids) in Egypt: Medical and Legal Challenges https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1251 <p align="justify"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Adobe, serif;"><span style="font-family: Times, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">Besides traditionally abused substances, the use of novel synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) emerged in Egypt a few years ago. Strox is a popular synthetic cannabis in Egypt that consists of smokable herbal products laced with unidentified synthetic cannabinoids. Unfortunately, threats from the escalating use of Strox in Egypt are increasing, which is a challenge for medical and legal systems. Acute Strox intoxication manifested by acute toxic psychosis and severe cases could develop cardiovascular instability and fatal coma. Strox-related toxicity could be attributed to THC analogs and anticholinergic agents along with the presence of additives such as ketamine. Limited knowledge considering exact Strox ingredients makes its identification in biological samples using standard toxicology impossible. In 2018, Egyptian law criminalized the usage of five THC analogs that are rapidly followed by alteration of Strox constituents by its manufacturer using non-prohibited cannabinoids to escape legal prohibition. Therefore, comprehensive studies are needed to identify common Strox constituents with subsequent successful detection. Moreover, the amendment of the law is essential to include any substances that have cannabis-like actions in the schedules of a prohibited substance.</span></span></span></span></p> Zahraa K. Sobh, Hasnaa K. Sobh Copyright (c) https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1251 Mon, 15 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0300 Vitreous Humor Biochemical Indicators of Acute CO Intoxication Associated Deaths: A Review of the Literature https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1252 <p align="justify"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Adobe, serif;"><span style="font-family: Times, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">Carbon monoxide (CO) intoxication is the inhalation of CO concentration above the tolerant threshold of the body. The quantity of CO concentration inhaled determines the level of damage which is proportional to either morbidity or mortality. The euphoria and rapidity of the mechanism of action of CO ranked it as a deleterious gas that could cause reparable to irreparable damage within a short interval. Disguised CO intoxication death is quite difficult to differentiate from that of accidental acute CO intoxication using autopsy findings. This gap is now utilized in committing heinous crimes. Postmortem use of blood is not practicable in most toxicological investigations due to fermentation and putrefaction. This has led to the use of vitreous humor in postmortem analytical toxicology. The dilemma in discriminating death truly resulting from CO intoxication from that of disguised (postmortem) CO intoxication is the quest of this study. This review elaborately takes a critical look at the literature relating to the subject of discourse with the view of drawing salient points that could be of critical importance in forensic science. A thorough review of the picture of vitreous chemistry resulting from acute CO intoxication was almost exhaustively analyzed based on the various perspectives found in the literature and other documents of importance.</span></span></span></span></p> ENI-YIMINI S. Agoro Copyright (c) https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1252 Mon, 15 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0300 Sodomy of Adolescent Males Presented to Pediatric Psychiatric Outpatient Clinic: A Case Series https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1253 <p align="justify"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Adobe, serif;"><span style="font-family: Times, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">Traditional Arab culture hides male sexual abuse and considers it a shame. Instead of treating male victims of sexual assault, they are often stigmatized as homosexual individuals. </span></span></span></span></p> <p align="justify"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Adobe, serif;"><span style="font-family: Times, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">Moreover, guardians of sexually abused boys are also negatively affected. They have to choose between reporting abuse to a legal authority with the risk of labeling their child or keeping a close eye on them to prevent further abuse. However, reporting abuse to healthcare authorities does take place. </span></span></span></span></p> <p align="justify"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Adobe, serif;"><span style="font-family: Times, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">Disclosing sexual abuse in the privacy of a psychiatric clinic is often the only way for victims to be successfully treated for the psychological effects of such abuse.</span></span></span></span></p> Iman A. Seif, Iman H. Diab, Soha A. L. A. Ibrahim, Heba Abdel-Samie M. Hussein, Sara A. Ghitani Copyright (c) https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1253 Mon, 15 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0300 Postmortem Tissue Distribution of Citalopram in a Case of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1254 <p align="justify"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Adobe, serif;"><span style="font-family: Times, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">Citalopram abuse may impair judgment and increase the risk of suicidal thoughts. This case report aims to study the postmortem tissue distribution of citalopram in a case of carbon monoxide poisoning. </span></span></span></span></p> <p align="justify"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Adobe, serif;"><span style="font-family: Times, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">Initial analysis was done by both immunoassay and non-targeted GC-MS screening methods. Carbon monoxide was identified and quantified by measuring the carboxyhemoglobin levels in spleen secretion (black bile) and spleen blood using a UV-visible spectrophotometer, while citalopram was identified and quantified by using an LC-MS-MS system. </span></span></span></span></p> <p align="justify"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Adobe, serif;"><span style="font-family: Times, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">Initial analysis showed that citalopram was present in all samples determined by immunoassay. The results of carboxyhemoglobin analysis were 85% in the spleen secretion and spleen blood, which are generally fatal levels. The results of LC-MS-MS showed that citalopram concentrations were 0.58 mg/L, 0.37 mg/L, 0.29 mg/L, 0.13 mg/L, 0.10 mg/L, and 0.01 mg/L, in the spleen blood, brain, spleen, kidney, liver and stomach, respectively. The highest concentrations of citalopram, 0.58 mg/L and 0.37 mg/L, were detected in spleen blood and brain tissue, respectively, which could be used as an alternative specimen to blood.</span></span></span></span></p> Magbool E. Oraiby, Mohammed Y. Albeishy, Mohammedalbadr M. Khawaji, Mohammed A. Arishy, Ibraheem M. Attafi Copyright (c) https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1254 Mon, 15 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0300 Forensic Toxicology Laboratory Guidelines: Analytical Method Validation (Version 2.0) https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1255 <p align="justify"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Calibri, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="color: #222222;"><span style="font-family: Times, serif;">Since postmortem forensic toxicology involves analyzing body fluids and organs from death cases, interpreting that information and studying the sudden unexpected and/or unexplained deaths as coroner’s cases or fall under the jurisdiction of the medical examiner. Reliable results and valid analytical data are an essential requirement for proper interpretation of forensic toxicology cases, especially when evaluating scientific studies and daily routine work, and when presenting any toxicological findings as criminal evidence.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p align="justify"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Calibri, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="color: #222222;"><span style="font-family: Times, serif;">In contrast, the results of unreliable analyses can be disputed in court and can also lead to unfair legal judgments against the defendant, or can result in wrong treatment in cases of rehabilitation of patients. In order to establish strong evidence and make a correct decision, the lab is asked to give high quality data that are based on reliable analytical methods. For that reason, all new analytical methods used in forensic toxicology including the clinical diagnosis of causes of death require careful care during the development of the analytical method and during its application. This is also an urgent need in the context of quality management and accreditation, especially as those issues have become increasingly important in the science of poisons and drug analysis in recent years.</span></span></span></span></span></p> Abdulsallam Bakdash, Jihad Al-Qudsi, Huda M. Hassan, Farouq Alzahrani, Sulaf Assi Copyright (c) https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1255 Thu, 04 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0300 Issue Information https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1072 <h3>Issue Information</h3> Issue Information Issue Information Copyright (c) 2019 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1072 Tue, 31 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Alcohol and Substance Abuse in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: A Hospital -based Survey https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1082 <p>The Government of Saudi Arabia has recognized and acknowledged substance abuse as a public health problem. As a<br>result, specialized hospitals have been established in many regions to treat substance abuse. The prevalence of substance abuse was investigated using a sample of 197 patients at Al-Amal Hospital, Riyadh, during a period of four months starting from May to August in 2018. The mean age of patients in the study was 26.5 years. The proportion<br>of patients based on substances abused were as follows: amphetamines (30.9%), cannabis (30.1%), ethyl alcohol (22.9%), alprazolam (5.1%), clonazepam (2.1%), tramadol (2.1%), heroin (1.3%), cocaine (0.4%) and pregabalin (0.4%). Patients who used a combination of two or more substances constituted 4.7%. The mean duration of abuse was 8.8 years for all the patients. Health organizations should raise awareness about these drugs and the<br>risks associated with their abuse, especially among young people. By conducting more research and developing a better understanding of the problem, treatment could be made more effective.</p> Abdulaziz A. Aldlgan, Israa J. Hakeem, Mohammed N. Alandes, Majidah M. Alfahmi Copyright (c) 2019 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1082 Tue, 31 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Crime Scene Mapping using Differential GPS and Geospatial Techniques for Simulated Outdoor Crime Scenes https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1077 <p>Outdoor crime scene management is difficult to accomplish,especially when the crime transpired in a big area, uneven space, or an area with a lack of reference points. It is important to visualize the location of the evidence to get an idea of how the crime took place and in what manner. In this research, two simulated outdoor crime scenes were created,<br>where both manual tape measurement and Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) unit were applied to see if the differential GPS offers an accurate and reliable alternative for mapping the scene over the baseline method. A eographic Information System(GIS) was used to derive a map of the simulated outdoor scenes. The result indicates that the DGPS unit provides a consistent reading when compared to manual tape measurement, giving an average reading difference of 0.06 cm and 0.13 cm. The study concluded that the DGPS unit can be a viable alternative for mapping outdoor crime scenes.</p> Puleno Kennao, Deepak Lal, Kesharwani Lav Copyright (c) 2019 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1077 Tue, 31 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Toothpaste Pattern: A Distinctive Feature of an 8 mm Bullet Fired through a Glass Target https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1083 <p>Shooting cases studied at the crime scene reveal an interesting outcome: the components of a projectile are usually disconnected and separated after firing through intermediate targets such as glass, bakelite or any other brittle materials. This study reports the forensic analysis of an 8mm soft nose bullet fired through a standard .315” sporting rifle onto glass sheets. Typical toothpaste pattern, mushroomed inward lead core was obtained in the laboratory for examinations. It is further highlighted that the lead core and jacketed portion of bullets were found separated in the cotton filled bullet recovery box after being fired through the glass targets. In such situations, interpretation and<br>correlation of these elements becomes a difficult task for the firearm examiner or crime scene investigator.<br>In the present study, typical toothpaste type patterns of the leadcore of Indian manufactured 8mm soft nose bullets were forensically examined and analyzed. Experimental data reported in this study may be helpful for firearm experts, crime scene investigators and related investigating agencies in future to correlate and interpret the evidence found at a shooting scenes</p> Narayan P. Waghmare, Kulbhooshan Gupta, Jagdish Naik Copyright (c) 2019 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1083 Tue, 31 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Sex Distinction in Digital Dermatoglyphic Patterns of Convicted Prisoners: A Comparative Cohort-Control Study https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1080 <p>The present study intends to analyse sex distinction in digital dermatoglyphic patterns in convicted prisoners and compare them with a normal control group. For this purpose, a sample of 184 prisoners (149 males, 35 females)<br>as well as 240 normal participants (male 120, female 120)were selected. The prisoner cohort group selected for the study was convicted for the following offences: Section 302 IPC, 307 IPC, 376IPC, 363-364 IPC, 366 IPC, 323-26 IPC. Galton’s system of classification was followed to classify various dermatoglyphic patterns. In the male criminal cohort group, the overall frequency of loop patterns (56.51%) was maximum compared to the frequency of whorls (38.79%) and arches (4.7%), while males in the control group exhibited the highest frequency of whorls (48.25%) followed<br>by loops (47.67%) and arches (4.08%). In females, loops were the most frequently occurring pattern, whereas arches were the least frequently seen pattern in both the criminal and cohort group. The frequency of arches was lowest in both the hands with higher fractional percentage in the radial side (thumb and index finger) of distoproximal axis as compared to ulnar side (ring finger and little finger) in both the groups. Pattern intensity index (13.40 vs 13.05),<br>and furuhata’s index (69.35 vs 68.47) of the criminal males and females were found to be comparable, but the Dankmeijer’s index (12.11 vs 18.93) of the male criminals was lower than their female counterparts, thereby indicating a higher occurrence of arches in the female criminal cohort group.</p> Maninder Kaur, Mankamal kour, SettingsPreet Kamal, Jatinder Kaur Copyright (c) 2019 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1080 Tue, 31 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Postmortem Toxicology Data of Autopsied Cases in the Northern Border Province, Saudi Arabia: A Six-Year Retrospective Study https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1081 <div> <p>Autopsy remains the most reliable tool to study mortality causes.This project was conducted to study toxicological findings in relation to gender, age, manners and causes of death among autopsied cases from 2013-2018 in the Northern Border province of Saudi Arabia. All police, hospitals, toxicology laboratory and autopsy reports related to the autopsied cases within the period of the study were revised. Among 908 autopsied cases during the study period, 144 autopsies (15.8%) showed positive toxicological findings (136 males (94.4%) and 8 females (5.4%)). Positive toxicological findings were significantly more common in cases aged 20-40 years (p&lt;0.0001) without a significant gender difference (p=0.116). The commonest toxicological finding was alcohol 55 cases (6.5%) followed by cannabis in 27 cases (2.9%), while 19 cases (2.1%) showed carboxylhemoglobin ≥10%. Most deaths with positive toxicological<br>screens (98 cases (68.1%)) were reported to be accidental. Six cases were recorded as carbon monoxide poisoning (COP), 3 cases were recorded as alcohol toxicity, and 2 cases were registered as hypertensive induced brain haemorrhages. Brain haemorrhages and aspiration pneumonia were reported among deaths related to alcohol,<br>while intraventricular brain haemorrhage was the cause of death in amphetamine deaths. Cherry red hypostasis and pulmonary edema were found among COP deaths. In conclusion, positive toxicology data were found in a considerable percent of autopsied cases, and they can contribute directly or indirectly to identifying the cause of death. Hence,<br>toxicological screening is mandatory in all suspected deaths and screening should not be neglected in cases with absent suggestive autopsy findings.</p> </div> Tarek Abdelraouf, Ekramy Elmorsy, Mohamed ElHafez, Amira Alshaman, Hanaa M. AlZaheed, Ahmed S. Alenezi Copyright (c) 2019 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1081 Tue, 31 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Pattern of Fatal Injuries due to Road Traffic Accidents in Khartoum, Sudan: A Retrospective Study https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1078 <p>This retrospective study was carried out to find out the pattern of fatal injuries due to RTAs as well as the sociodemographic profile of the victims. This helps in reconstruction of RTAs and suggestion of steps for prevention.<br>All the victims of road traffic accidents subjected to medico-legal autopsy at the mortuary of Bashayir teaching hospital in Khartoum, Sudan during the three month period from 1st January 2017 to the 31st of March 2017 were included<br>in the study. Out of 256 autopsies conducted during the study period, deaths due to RTA were 109 (42.6%). Males died due to RTA more than females with a ratio of 2:1. The highest number of deaths was 36 (33%), recorded in the age group 20-29 years, and the lowest number was 6 (5.5%) in the age group 60 years and above. From the majority of RTA victims, 50 (45.9%) died due to head injury followed by 29 who died from multiple injuries/fractures 29 (26.6%). Hemorrhagic shock was the cause of death in 22 (20.2%) cases. Septicemia and complications were the cause in 5 (4.6%) and 2 (1.8%) cases, respectively. Spinal injuries took the life of one victim (0.9%).<br>This study shows that there was a high percentage of RTA deaths among males of a young age. Abrasions were<br>the most common type of external injuries. The skull was the most common bone to be fractured in the accidents. And<br>head injury was the most common cause of death.</p> Rawan K. A. Salih Copyright (c) 2019 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1078 Tue, 31 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Investigation of Kerosene used as Fire Accelerant Remaining on Different Kinds of Fabrics https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1076 <p>In arson cases, the detection and identification of fire accelerants&nbsp;is of high importance for elucidation of such crimes. The present study aims to investigate the remaining fraction of kerosene hydrocarbons impregnated on four kinds of textiles (nylon, polyester, wool and cotton). The volatile fraction was collected by SPME on non-burnt and<br>burnt samples at successive times (0, 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 h.), then analyzed by GC-MS. Among the 27 characteristic compounds identified in kerosene, aromatic hydrocarbons were the predominant components, but their&nbsp;evaporation was faster than alkanes in unburnt textiles. Also, in the case of non-burnt samples, the total amount of kerosene residues was higher in synthetic tissues than in natural materials. After burning the different kinds of impregnated textiles, 22 hydrocarbons were detected with a decreasing amount over time, while the concentration of linear alkanes remained higher during the sampling time. All the partially burnt samples displayed much less kerosene&nbsp;residues than in the same unburnt samples. Unlike the non-burnt samples, the profile of kerosene amount as function of time was<br>very similar on the four investigated kinds of fabrics after burning. These results and the proposed procedure should help forensic investigators in the field of fire debris analysis, in arson cases.</p> Abdulrhman M. Dhabbah Copyright (c) 2019 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1076 Tue, 31 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Establishing Sequence of Inkjet Printer, Laser Printer and Writing Ink Strokes using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1075 <p>The aim of the present study is to determine the sequence of laser printer, inkjet printer, and writing ink (ball point pen ink, gel pen ink, pilot pen ink and fountain pen ink) strokes using a low voltage (1kV) scanning electron microscope (SEM). Intersections were prepared using an inkjet printer, laser printer, and writing instruments on copier paper. About 1cm2 of intersection was cut using scissors and mounted to the probe stage of the SEM using double-sided tape. Each sample was analyzed at different operating parameters. The results were evaluated on the basis of continuity and iscontinuity of strokes at intersection point. It was possible to determine the correct sequence of printer strokes versus other writing instruments’ strokes; inkjet printer stroke versus fountain and pilot pen ink stroke; however, inconclusive results were obtained in the case of inkjet printer strokes versus ball point pen and gel pen ink&nbsp;strokes. The ffectiveness of this technique was determined by analyzing the exact sequence of blind samples. An SEM could be used as mplimentary tool with other optical methods to examine the sequence of strokes.</p> Komal Saini, Rajshree Rathore, Ravinder Kaur, Tarun Sharma, Shabnam P. Kaur Copyright (c) 2019 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1075 Tue, 31 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Determination of Psychoactive Mitragynine Drug in Suspected Kratom Species Collected from Various Geographical Areas in the Philippines: A Pilot Study on Existing Local Plant-based New Psychoactive Su https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1074 <p>Kratom<em>&nbsp;</em>is a tropical tree indigenous to South East Asian countries and has been traditionally used by natives to increase work efficiency and treat selected illnesses. However, the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) classified kratom,&nbsp;<em>Mitragyna speciose</em>, as a plant-based New Psychoactive Substance (NPS) that must be monitored worldwide, due to increasing reports of abuse. Many countries, including the Philippines, do not put restrictions on the said plant species including its major psychoactive drug, mitragynine. Under this prevailing provision, a research exploration was carried out to determine the distribution of kratom trees,<em>&nbsp;</em>locally known as “mambog”, in the Philippines and authenticate species identity of collected specimens through chemical determination of mitragynine and DNA analysis.</p> <p>Various samples, specifically leaves, twigs, barks and roots,<strong>&nbsp;</strong>from claimed kratom species in selected regions of Luzon and the Mindanao Islands of the Philippines were sampled and preserved accordingly before subjecting them to instrumental analysis using Gas-Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS) and DNA barcoding.</p> <p>During the field exploration, it was well documented that claimed kratom trees are mostly present in wetland areas at low altitudes, and sometimes co-exist with local bangkal (genus&nbsp;<em>Nauclea</em>) trees. Interestingly, while locals identified some of the collected species as kratom through botanical assessment, mitragynine was not detected in some selected sampling sites. Remarkably, among tree parts collected, only leaves and twigs<strong>&nbsp;</strong>showed evidence of mitragynine suggesting further disparity among kratom tree parts.&nbsp;</p> Atty. Severino P. Uy, Shaila Jr, S. Seville, Jasmyne L. M. Jaranilla, Yvette K. S. Desamito, Reynalyn P. Barbacena, Ronald J. A. Narceda Copyright (c) 2019 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1074 Tue, 31 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Detection of the Timing of Human Skin Wounds by Immunohistochemical Analysis of CD14 https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1073 <p>Determination of time of injury is one of the most important topics in forensic autopsy. Several researches have been developed to estimate wound age, unfortunately with limited success. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the efficacy of Cluster of Differentiation 14 (CD14) as a reliable marker for estimating wound age. The study was conducted on forty bodies of victims with different types of wound and known infliction time. Skin samples were obtained during autopsy from the center of the wound. Sections from samples were histologically examined by H &amp; E stain. Immunohistochemical staining was done using CD14 antibody and the staining density was evaluated semi-quantitatively. There was a statistically significant relation between wound&nbsp;age and percentage of CD14 expression. Expression of CD14&nbsp;was 61.81±6.55 % in specimens from wounds aged less than 12&nbsp;hours. It increased till reaching its maximum (96.40±3.78 %) for&nbsp;wounds aged between 1-3 days. Then it decreased dramatically to&nbsp;14.80±3.49 % in wounds older than 3 days.&nbsp;CD14 is proved to be a reliable marker for estimating wound&nbsp;age. It gave best results in wounds aged between 1-3 days with an&nbsp;overall accuracy of 100%. Accordingly, it can be used to determine wound age in medicolegal practice.</p> Azza A. Fouad, Fatma M. M. Badr El Dine, Heba M. K. El Dine Menesy, Amany A. Abdelatif, Amany A. Abdelatif, Rasha I. Khedr Copyright (c) 2019 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1073 Tue, 31 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0300 A Battered Child or Electrocution? https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1087 <p>The dead body of a 13-year-old boy was transferred from the Department of Forensic Medicine in Al-Qadisiya Health<br>Directorate, Al-Qadisiya province to the main medico-legal directorate in Baghdad. Bruises were scattered all over his body with bite marks on his left shoulder and superficial wounds in different regions, in addition to a bruise similar to a ligature around the neck. There was also an electrocution burn on the right forearm. The body was transferred because of the unavailability of forensic pathologists in that region and the difficulty of performing the autopsy by other doctors in order to give a proper autopsy report to the court and whether it was a case of battered child syndrome, electrocution, or homicide through injuries the perpetrator tried to conceal. It was revealed that the boy was lectrocuted, and electrocution was recorded as the cause of death.</p> Nabeel G. Hashim, Mohammed A. Mankhi, Muataz A. Al-Qazzaz Copyright (c) 2019 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1087 Tue, 31 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Statistical Calculations in Case of Brother-Sister Incest https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1088 <p>Incest is a sexual activity that happens between close family members that are not allowed to get married due to customs or law. In a case of incest between a brother and his married sister, a paternity test and a<br>statistical analysis were performed at the laboratories of the Paternity and Kinship Division of the Medico-legal Directorate Baghdad, Iraq. Blood samples were taken from the concerned subjects in this case (newborn baby, mother, alleged father, and the husband) and placed on FTA cards. DNA extraction was done using Chelex®, then the<br>amplification of extracted DNA was carried out using an AmpFlSTR® Identifiler kit. PCR products were run with a 3130xl Genetic Analyzer, and the data were analyzed with Gene-Mapper ID® Analysis Software V.3.2 software.The analysis of DNA profiles using 15 loci as well as the statistical analysis for calculating the paternity index confirmed the allegation of the brother-sister incest, since the baby inherited all the obligate alleles from the alleged father (suspected brother). With a 99.9998% probability of paternity, these results showed that even in the case of brother-sister incest, paternity could be proved using 15 DNA locus with a high rate of certainty.</p> Nadia F. Salman, Hanan K. Mahmood, Sp.B. Eman A. Hussain Copyright (c) 2019 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1088 Tue, 31 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Legal Background of Food Safety Violation Internationally and in Saudi Arabia https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1086 <p>Tackling food safety violations worldwide in general and in the&nbsp;Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in particular is a major global concern that requires ongoing evaluation and revision of the food control&nbsp;systems and laws. This paper addresses the legal classification of food safety violations&nbsp;by reviewing and examining several cases of food safety&nbsp;violations in different countries, including Saudi Arabia.&nbsp;The study is based on theoretically driven research methods.It examines primary and secondary resources on the topic such&nbsp;as laws, precedents, academic books, journal articles and reliable<br>websites. It concludes with some recommendations that could contribute to minimizing (if not preventing) food safety violations</p> Samah Al Agha Copyright (c) 2019 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1086 Tue, 31 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Commentary on: Attafi IM, Albeishy MY, Oraiby ME, Khardali IA, Shaikhain GA, Fageeh MM. Postmortem Distribution of Cathinone and Cathine in Human Biological Specimens in a Case of Death Associated wit https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1089 <p>The interpretation of post-mortem human tissue toxicology levels may be affected by the sampling site chosen. It is important to bear this in mind when looking at the psychoactive constituents of khat (Catha edulis Forsk) that have been consumed and have contributed to or caused death.The post-mortem levels of cathine, cathinone and norephedrine/ norpseudoephedrine are very rarely reported, thereby making it impossible for toxicologists, pathologists and others investigating khat-related fatalities to decide if a level is toxic or fatal. This paper presents all the published data that exists to help start documenting this neglected area. Such information should be collected and reported on a systematic basis to facilitate correct interpretations in the future.</p> John M. Corkery, Fabrizio Schifano, Amira Guirguis Copyright (c) 2019 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1089 Tue, 31 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Forensic Examination of Counterfeit Indian Currency based on Unique Obscure High Security Features in New Indian High Denomination Currency Note https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1084 <p>Rampant cases related to circulation of fake currency notes have been reported worldwide. With the introduction of new banknotes (announced after demonetization) having advanced and exclusive security features, it is the need of the hour, especially for a forensic Scientists, to have an idea about these new features and the various methods to examine these features. Results presented in this paper are based on examination and comparison of original and suspected fake 2000 rupee Indian currency banknote utilizing physical examination methods and techniques such as physical, microscopic, digital image processing, etc. During the examination of original 2000 rupee banknote, it was found that some security features of this banknote are unique &amp; exclusive and could not be forged by counterfeiters. Counterfeiter<br>could only imitate most of the visual features of banknotes but some specific security features like OVI print, UV-fluorescent print, micro letters, etc. which are placed on all over the substrate of original banknote, could not be mimicked. However, imitation of the visual features, can at times deceives the public in general. The present case study presents a methodology which will be very useful and informative in assisting the forensic community in examination of fake currency banknotes and for future studies.</p> Ritika Verma, N. Ramakrishnan N. Ramakrishnan Copyright (c) 2019 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1084 Tue, 31 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Ear Prints and their impact as Criminal Evidence / بصمة الأذن وأثرها في الإثبات الجنائي https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1331 <p>Crime has developed as a result of scientific and technological progress. Because of this development, it can be impossible to identify the perpetrators by traditional means of proof. Traditional means of proof lack the necessary means to identify the offender as a result of them using modern methods to commit their crimes.</p><p>Criminal justice systems have relied upon modern criminal investigation techniques such as ear prints in identifying perpetrators. However, the use of such techniques as criminal evidence raises problems as to the accuracy of the identity of the individual and may prejudice human rights guaranteed by the constitution.</p><p>In this study, we attempted to identify the role of ear prints as evidence and their evidential weight before the criminal courts, and the reliability of them as evidence before the criminal judge in various crimes.</p><p>The study revealed that there is no law regulating the use of ear prints as criminal evidence. There is also a lack of agreement among specialists on the accuracy of their results, which did not reach 100%. This works in favor of the accused, based on the principle that he is innocent until proven guilty. This also shows that ear prints alone cannot be used to prove guilt, because they do not provide certain and clear proof; any conviction must be based on certainty. They need to be supported by other means of proof. However, ear prints are suitable for acquittal or recognition of victims of crime or unknown persons in the event of disasters or newborns, etc.</p><p>Ear prints are not suitable as criminal evidence in crimes with prescribed Islamic sharia punishments, because they contravene the rules of proving guilt prescribed in Islamic law.</p> Mashaallah O. ALzwae Copyright (c) https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1331 Wed, 29 May 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Criminal Legality of Fingerprints and DNA/المشروعية الجنائية لبصمات اليد والبصمة الوراثية https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1323 <p><strong>The field of criminal evidence has undergone a major revolution with respect to the prosecution of crimes of all types and at different stages of public proceedings.</strong></p><p><strong>This progress is due to the rigorous scientific development in the world, which has enabled experts to be able to discover the facts of the various traces left at the crime scene, which guide the investigator to the perpetrators, contributors and participants in the crimes.</strong></p><p><strong>This study looks at a specific type of evidence, which concerns traces left at crime scenes from the human body</strong><strong>.</strong><strong></strong></p><p><strong>Given the many biological evidences that the human body may leave at the crime scene, we will focus on two of the most important evidences that can be used in the field of criminal evidence: fingerprints and DNA.</strong></p><p><strong>The paper also answers two questions: What is the extent to which these evidences are used in criminal cases? and How legitimate are each in Moroccan criminal legislation? </strong><strong></strong></p> Youness Nafid Copyright (c) https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1323 Wed, 29 May 2019 00:00:00 +0300 What does a Forensic Linguist Really Do? A Close Reading of three Cases of Authorship /طبيعة عمل عالم اللغة الجنائي قراءة في ثلاث قضايا في تحقيق نسبة النص https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1310 <p><strong>The present study attempts to investigate the nature of the work of the forensic linguist to find out the procedural methods used to attribute authorship of texts to their potential owners. The aim is to examine the aspects of the linguistic theory on which the work of the forensic linguist depends, and upon which he may base his assumptions and then verify their validity. To achieve this, the study follows the narrative analysis method, one of the methods of qualitative approach in humanities, which depends on the analysis of the text and tracing the human experience of the forensic linguist in his work and obstacles he encountered. The study deals with three famous cases that occupied the Western judiciary for a period of time. The first is the issue of doubt in the statement of the culprit known as the case of Derek Bentley in Britain, the issue of comparing manuscripts known as the Unabomber, and the issue attributing part of a text to one of its co-authors. It is hoped that the study of these three cases will lead to further research in this neglected area of science in the Arab world</strong><strong>.</strong><strong></strong></p> Antar Abdellah Copyright (c) https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1310 Wed, 29 May 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Digital Environment and the Provisions of Theft Under Islamic Law/البيئة الرّقميّة والسّرقة الحدّيّة https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1296 <p>This paper deals with an important issue concerning the relationship between Islamic sharia rules in the field of combating theft, the scientific development in the field of computers and the internet, and their uses in the evolution of methods of committing digital theft crime.</p><p>The paper is divided into four sections that look into the question of the applicability of the financial condition, the provision of taking money, the condition defining the security and protection of wealth, and the requirements of proving the crime of theft in Islamic Law.</p><p>The researcher concluded the possibility of applying the Islamic rules related to theft crime to electronic money in theory, and the difficulty of that in practice or reality due to some problems related to the nature of electronic money in some cases (information or data and programs). Other problems are related to proving the crime.</p><p>Therefore, the researcher recommends the necessity of legislative intervention to indicate the provisions applicable to this type of theft, and whether the rulings on this type of crime relate to the prescribed punishment for theft in Islamic Law or discretionary punishments.</p> Mustafa I. A. Khaled Copyright (c) https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1296 Wed, 29 May 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Modern scientific means and criminal protection of the right to privacy (medical experience is a model https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1092 <div> <p>As a result of scientific development and the latest<br>methods of detecting and tracking criminals, debate has been<br>raised over the legality of these scientific means due to their<br>infringement on personal freedoms and the inviolability of<br>private life. Due to this, the Algerian legislator has amended<br>the Penal Code in accordance with Law 06-03 of 20 December<br>2006 and its text on the inviolability of private life in article<br>303. And as a result of developments all over the world, the<br>Algerian constitutional founder has included a legal clause<br>protecting this right in the constitutional amendment of 2016.<br>The legislator is currently seeking the enactment of Law 18-<br>07 on the protection of natural persons in the handling of<br>their data.<br>The right to privacy is linked to the freedom and dignity<br>of people, and taking in to account the seriousness of medical<br>experiments, DNA, and images in order to detect criminals,<br>the extent of the violation of this right has made us address<br>this subject.<br>So the question arises: What controls the protection of<br>the right to privacy when using modern scientific means to<br>prove guilt?</p> </div> Hammoudi H. Mohammed Copyright (c) https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1092 Wed, 29 May 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Legislative and judicial means against emerging crimes: The crime of money laundering as a model https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1090 <p>This study was designed to clarify the effective legislative and judicial means to face the crime of money laundering. It is considered a new and emerging crime, according to an integrated vision that took into account the developments of the era and its variables in order to achieve security in society. The problem of money-laundering has become a phenomenon that alarms states and individuals because of its serious effects in all aspects of political, economic and social life, as well as in its sources of support, as it is fueled by crime in all its forms. The crime of money-laundering has assumed an advanced rank for crime patterns in light of the development of information technologies and means<br>of communication. Therefore, states have sought to establish laws and resolute procedures to prevent the spread of this phenomenon. The judiciary has a duty to bring an end to a number of crimes. This is to be achieved through facing this phenomenon in legislative and judicial ways, using preventive methods, and through the enactment of<br>legislation with severe penalties and judicial application. Preventive measures must also be taken at administrative and financial levels to prevent this crime and dry up its sources. This study is divided into three main topics: the first includes the definition of emerging crimes and the importance of legislation</p> Mousa M. Alqudah, Abdullah A. Rababah Copyright (c) https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1090 Wed, 29 May 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Application of Adobe® Photoshop® CC 2018 for Identifying the Source of HP® Color Laser Printouts https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1158 <p>Abstract<br />In today’s digital world, printer forensics is one of the<br />most important disciplines to reveal the authenticity of printed<br />documents and track criminals. Digital steganography<br />is an advanced approach to secure color laser printing processes,<br />but it cannot be applied to monochrome laser printers.<br />Therefore, the identity of the machine used to print color<br />questioned documents provides a valuable means for detecting<br />forgery crimes in digital forensic labs and law enforcement<br />agencies. Based on this, we introduced a new forensic<br />method that unveils the steganography (hidden information)<br />embedded in color laser printouts via an adopted preset in<br />Adobe® Photoshop® CC 2018. This forensic tool can be applied<br />as a nondestructive and indirect tool for image processing.<br />In the present work, printing, scanning, extraction, and<br />measurements for the embedded tracking dots of candidate<br />color laser printouts were conducted.<br />Thirty-five HP® color laser printers were selected with<br />different and same models with different serial numbers and<br />used to print a hundred color laser printouts.<br />The defined coded dots matrix patterns that characterized<br />the color laser machines of the HP® brand could clearly be<br />determined.<br />Therefore, this procedure could successfully be applied<br />to distinguish between various color laser printouts printed<br />by HP® printers with a variant serial number in digital forensic<br />labs with a conclusive accuracy ratio attained to one<br />hundred percent.</p> Ahmad S. Salim, Asmaa A. Abdall Copyright (c) https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1158 Thu, 23 May 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Anticoagulant Rodenticides Poisonings in Humans and Animals – Short Review https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1256 <p>Abstract<br />Anticoagulant rodenticides (AR) are among the most commonly<br />used rodent control pesticides. The current second-generation<br />rodenticides in worldwide use are referred to as superwarfarins.<br />These substances have relatively low toxicity to humans but significant<br />toxicity to animals, including pets.<br />AR work at the level of hepatocytes by blocking the synthesis<br />of plasma coagulation factors II, VII, IX, and X as well as proteins<br />C, S, and Z, resulting in severe coagulation disorders predominant<br />in the clinical picture.<br />Deaths associated with AR poisoning are the result of haemorrhages<br />into the gastrointestinal tract, peritoneal cavity, or intracranial<br />cavities.<br />Medico-legal diagnosis of AR poisonings is based on the clinical<br />picture, autopsy, and histopathological and toxicological examinations.</p> Marcin Zawadzki, Paweł Szpot Szpot Copyright (c) 2019 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine (AJFSFM) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1256 Thu, 23 May 2019 00:00:00 +0300 A Rare Case of Cerebral Hemangioblastoma Mimicking as Anterior Choroid Plexus Cyst https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1272 <p>Abstract<br />A choroid plexus cyst may be present throughout the ventricular<br />system of the brain. A hemangioblastoma is generally found in<br />patients with genetic diseases like Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) syndrome<br />disease, but it can also be found sporadically in the spinal<br />cord, retina and in rare cases in the cerebrum.<br />An eighteen-year-old male subject was referred for autopsy<br />in Kolkata police morgue on 27/02/2017. Two hours before, the<br />patient had been brought to the hospital for severe headache; but<br />before any diagnosis could be made, he collapsed and died. On<br />autopsy, a 4cm fluid filled cyst was found in the anterior portion<br />of third ventricle and sent for histopathological examination. HPE<br />findings were consistent with a hemangioblastoma, which made<br />this case extremely rare.<br />Sudden death due to increased intracranial tension cases should<br />be properly examined for any neuroepithelial tumours like a hemangioblastoma.</p> Somnath Das, Rina Das, Senjuti Dasgupta, Chandan K. Jha Copyright (c) 2019 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine (AJFSFM) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1272 Thu, 23 May 2019 00:00:00 +0300 A Study of Palatal Rugae Patterns and Maxillary Inter-Canine Distance in a Jordanian Population Sample https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1196 <p>The study of palatal rugae has an important role in establishing<br />personal identity and facilitating population identification. The<br />current work analyzed the pattern of palatal rugae among an adult<br />Jordanian population and searched for any gender differences.<br />A total of 100 random dental casts were included in this study.<br />Number and pattern of palatal rugae regarding length, shape, direction,<br />and unification of rugae were identified. In addition, measurement<br />of maxillary intercanine widths (MIW) using digital Vernier<br />caliper was done.<br />Palatal rugae on the right side outnumbered those on the left<br />side. Males had more rugae in general than females. The commonest<br />rugae in both sexes were serpiginous. Primary and forward rugae<br />showed the highest frequency. A diverging form of unification was<br />more prevalent than a converging form. Apart from a total number<br />of convergent, divergent and secondary rugae, the total number of<br />other rugae differs significantly between males and females.<br />The study showed characteristics of palatal rugae in a Jordanian<br />population which could be gender specific, facilitating their identification.<br />It revealed the presence of sexual dimorphism, and sex<br />can be predicted using either logistic regression equation or CART<br />model.</p> Asmaa S. El-Banna, Medyan Al-Rousan, Ghada Abu-Sheasha Copyright (c) 2019 Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine (AJFSFM) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.nauss.edu.sa/index.php/AJFSFM/article/view/1196 Thu, 23 May 2019 00:00:00 +0300