Detection of the Timing of Human Skin Wounds by Immunohistochemical Analysis of CD14

Rasha I. Khedr, Fatma M. M. Badr El Dine, Heba M. K. El Dine Menesy, Amany A. Abdelatif, Azza A. Fouad


Determination of time of injury is one of the most important topics in forensic autopsy. Several researches have been developed to estimate wound age, unfortunately with limited success. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the efficacy of Cluster of Differentiation 14 (CD14) as a reliable marker for estimating wound age. The study was conducted on forty bodies of victims with different types of wound and known infliction time. Skin samples were obtained during autopsy from the center of the wound. Sections from samples were histologically examined by H & E stain. Immunohistochemical staining was done using CD14 antibody and the staining density was evaluated semi-quantitatively. There was a statistically significant relation between wound age and percentage of CD14 expression. Expression of CD14 was 61.81±6.55 % in specimens from wounds aged less than 12 hours. It increased till reaching its maximum (96.40±3.78 %) for wounds aged between 1-3 days. Then it decreased dramatically to 14.80±3.49 % in wounds older than 3 days. CD14 is proved to be a reliable marker for estimating wound age. It gave best results in wounds aged between 1-3 days with an overall accuracy of 100%. Accordingly, it can be used to determine wound age in medicolegal practice.


Forensic Science, Forensic Pathology, Wound Age, Immunohistochemistry, CD14

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