Sexual Assault in Ballari, Karnataka, India: A Four Year Retrospective Review

Charan K. Shetty, Gururaj Biradar, Pavanchand Shetty


Sexual assault is both a common and a very serious crime which is investigated by the police with an intensity second only to that of murder. Despite India stiffening its laws on sexual crimes, nothing much has changed on the ground. This retrospective study was conducted on 86 cases of sexual assault received for examination at Vijayanagara Institute of medical sciences (VIMS), Ballari, Karnataka, during the year 2010 - 2013. This study revealed that most vulnerable age group were males aged 11-20 years, where most commonly sexual crimes were performed by the person familiar to the victim (33.72%).  The maximum numbers of victims were medico-legally examined on the second day (46.51%) of the assault. Examinations as recent tear of hymen was noticed in 16.66% female victims, and restrain marks on the victims were present in 25 (29.06%) cases. The study aims to enhance public awareness regarding sexual violence, as support the ground to the law enforcement authorities to implement strategies to prevent such cases in the future.

Keywords: Forensic science; forensic pathology; sexual assault; hymen; anal intercourse.   

Full Text:



Subramanyam BV. Modi’s Textbook of medical jurisprudence and toxicology. 22nd ed. New Delhi: Butterworth India Publication; 2001. p. 495-99.

Tamuli RP, Paul B, Mahanta P. A statistical analysis of alleged victims of sexual assault- A retrospective study. J Punjab Acad Forensic Med Toxicol. 2013;13(1):7-13.

Jain R, Verma KN. Analysis of sex related offences and control measures: an Indian law view point. Int J Edu Sci Res. 2015; 2(2):39-42.

Sharma BR, Gupta M. Gender based violence in India: A never - ending phenomenon. J Int Womens Stud. 2004; 6(1):114-23.

Sarkar SC, Lalwani S, Rautji R, Bhardwaj DN, Dogra TD. A study on victims of sexual offences in South Delhi. J Fam Wel. 2005; 51(1):60-66.

Haider A. A Study of Female Sexual Offences in the Year 2013 at DHQ Hospital Dera Ismail Khan. Ann Pak Inst Med Sci. 2014; 10(4): 187-92.

Bhowmik K, Chaliha R. A descriptive one year study on the alleged male and female victims and accused of sex crime. J Indian Acad Forensic Med. 2011; 33(3): 214-20.

Naik SK, Atal DK, Murari A, Balwantray JK. Fabrication of sexual assault: a case report. J Clin Pathol Forensic Med. 2010; 1(3):35-37.

World Health Organization. Global and regional estimates of violence against women: prevalence and health effects of intimate partner violence and non-partner sexual violence. Geneva: WHO, 2013; 1-50.

The Protection of Children from Sexual Offences (POCSO) Act, 2012: Intl J Health Sci Res ( 2016;6(2): 351.

Children-from-sexual-offences-act-2012-pocso. National Crime Record Bureau (NCRB), Govt. of India, 2014.

Rukmimi S. Delhi is now India’s rape capital shows NCRB data. The Hindu, 19th August, 2015.

World Health Organisation. World report on violence and health. Geneva: WHO, 2008; 1-331.

Bandyopadhay S, Ghosh S, Adhya S, Pal K, Dalai CK. A study on sexual assault victims attending a tertiary care hospital of eastern India. IOSR J Dent Med Sci. 2013; 6(6):16-19.

Tailor C, Govekar G, Patel G, Silajiya D. The profile of age in cases of victims of sexual offence. J Indian Acad Forensic Med. 2010; 32(4):303-7.

Demireva RD, Dimitrova MR, Burulyanova IS, Ivanov GD, Viktorov DW, Ivanov IT, Geogiev KY. Comparative Investigations of the Incidence of Sexual Assault in Three Regions of the Republic of Bulgaria During 1997–2006. Acta Fac Med Naiss. 2013; 30(2):85-92.

Sharma DC, Aggarwal KK, Bhullar DS. Analysis of vaginal swab examination vis-a-vis magnitude of rape in Punjab. J Indian Acad Forensic Med. 2008; 30(4):186-92.

Arif M, Ahmed M, Hanif F. Natural sexual offences; medicolegal assessment in Punjab. Professional Med J. 2014; 21(5):980-6.

Pal SK, Sharma A,Sehgal A, Rana A. A study of sexual assault in northern range of Himachal Pradesh. Int J Med Toxicol Forensic Med. 2015; 5(2):64-72.

Yadav A, Meena RL, Pathak D, Kothari NS. A Five Year Retrospective Study of Victims of Sexual Offences in Jaipur Region. Indian J Forensic Med Toxicol. 2014; 8(2):89-93.

Du Mont J, Parnis D. Sexual assault and legal resolution: querying the medical collection of forensic evidence. Med & L. 2000;19:779-92.

Suri S, Sanjeeda. An analytical study of rape in Delhi. Intl J Edu Psychol Res. 2013; 2(3):60-68.

Tariq SA, Tariq SA, Qasim AP, Naeem M, Naheed K, Pal MI. Pattern of female medico-legal cases attending the casualty department of a teaching hospital. J Uni Med Dent Coll. 2014;5(1):20-5.

Sukul B, Chattopadhyay S, Bose TK. A study of the victims of natural sexual offence in Bankuradistrict of West Bengal. J Indian Acad Forensic Med. 2009; 31(1): 25-29.

Parveen H, Nadeem S, Aslam M, Sohail K. Female victims of sexual violence, reported cases of Faisalabad city in 2008. Professional Med J. 2010; 17(4):735-40.

Casteel C, Martin SL, Smith JB, Gurka KK, Kupper LL. National study of physical and sexual assault among women with disabilities. Inj Prev. 2008; 14(2):87-90., PMid:18388227

Harrell E. Crime against persons with disabilities, 2009-2011 – Statistical Tables. 2014. Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. Department of Justice.

Grossin C, Sibille I, de la Grandmaison GL, Banasr A, Brion F, Durigon M. Analysis of 418 cases of sexual assault. Forensic Sci Int. 2003;131(2-3):125-30.

El-Elemi AH, Moustafa SM, Hagras AM. Reported cases of female sexual assault over 5 years period in Suiz canal area, Egypt: demographic study. Egypt J Forensic Sci. 2011; 1:118-23.

Al-Azad MA, Raman Z, Ahmad M, Wahab MA, Ali M, Khalil MI. Socio-demographic characterstics of alleged sexual assault (rape) cases in Dhaka city. J Armed Forces Medical College, Bangladesh. 2012 Apr 16;7(2):21-4.

Riggs N, Houry D, Long G, Markovchick V, Feldhaus KM. Analysis of 1,076 cases of sexual assault. Ann Emerg Med. 2000; 35:358-62.

Hassan Q, Bashir MZ, Mujahid M, Munawar AZ, Aslam M, Marri MZ. Medico-legal assessment of sexual assault victims in Lahore. J Pak Med Assoc. 2007; 57(11):539-42. PMid:18062518

Fimate L, Devi M. An analytical study of rape in Manipur. Int J Med ToxicolLegal Med. 1998; 1:1-2.

Kaushik N, Pal SK, Sharma A, Thakur GC. A Retrospective Study of Sexual Assaults in Southern Range of Himachal Pradesh. Int J Health Sci Res. 2016; 6(2):342-51.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.