The last three decades have seen rapid advances in the field of short tandem repeats (STRs) genotyping technology. Autosomal STRs have emerged as a powerful tool in forensic identification and paternity investigations. The indigenous population of Saudi Arabia is irregularly distributed and has historically been organized into geographically distinct groups or tribes of patrilineal descent. So far, there has been no detailed investigation of the southern region Saudi population to assist in the interpretation of DNA-based forensic evidence and in the construction of DNA database. The objective of this study is to investigate the genetic structure in 154 unrelated healthy Saudi subjects within three generations from the southern Saudi regions using a GlobalFiler™ PCR Amplification kit. Intra- and Inter-population genetic diversity as well as the forensic genetics parameters were analyzed. Our results showed that SE33 and TPOX loci were the most and the least polymorphic loci, respectively. The PIC, PE, TPI, Ho and He varied from 0.56116 (TPOX) to 0.94393 (SE33), 0.26638 (TPOX) to 0.83859 (SE33), 1.1875 (TPOX) to 6.33333 (SE33), 0.57894 (TPOX) to 0.92105 (SE33) and 0.6169 (TPOX) to 0.952 (SE33), respectively. The highest PM was observed for D22S1045 (0.223944) and the highest PD for SE33 (0.98935). The combined PD was 99.99999999% and the combined PM was equal to 3.19021E-25. Phylogenetic parameters showed that the southern region Saudi population had the closest genetic relationship with the Saudi, Emirati, Kuwaiti, and Bahraini populations. The study offers some important insights into the southern region Saudi population structure using GlobalFiler™ PCR Amplification kit.
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