Cell line authentication using Short Tandem Repeats (STRs) is necessary to ensure the integrity of the cell for its continuous culture and to identify misidentification and cross-contamination issues. This study investigates the changes in the genetic profile of MCF-7 and HepG2 cell lines caused by the methanolic leaf extract of Anastatica hierochuntica (AH) using human identification based STR markers. MCF-7 and HepG2 cell lines were treated with various concentrations of AH extracts for three different periods. The treated and control cells' DNA was extracted using a QIAamp® DNA Micro Kit, quantified using a Quantifiler Duo DNA Quantification Kit, and amplified using an AmpFlSTR Identifiler plus PCR Amplification Kit. The concentrations of the DNA extracted from control and MCF-7 and HepG2 cell lines treated with AH extract at 300 to 2400 µg/ml for 24hr and 150 to 2400 µg/ml for 48 and 72hrs were statistically significant (p<0.05). Microsatellite instability (MSI), loss of heterozygosity (LOH), insertion/deletions changes in the STRs profile were observed in treated cell lines at 1200 and 2400 µg/ml in MCF-7 cells for 48 and 72hrs and HepG2 cells for 24, 48, and 72hrs. We conclude that the highest concentration of AH extracts affected the genotype of the cell lines leading to misidentification. Therefore, cell line authentication by forensic DNA analysis techniques plays a decisive role for cells tested with a high concentration of chemical compounds and gives the forensic investigator an insight into these changes in the STR genotype of a victim/suspect who has been been under long term chemotherapeutic treatment.
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